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正确使用YESNO,是学好肯定句和否定句的关键。中学生常误译“YES”为“是”,“NO”为“不”。因为“YES”有“是”、“NO”有“不”的含义。生活中的说话者有时也会搞错,译作如不留意也会出毛病。中英互译如果掌握不好,会导致词不达意或意思相反。汉语中的“不”字有时可用“没有”、“无”、“非”等字来代替,以便达到句子意思相同或相近。英语的否定句和肯定句很灵活,可能出现在单词、词组或句子的句型中。

   

中学英语课本有关“YES”和“NO”的泽法,你能理解吗?

 

1)—— Didn’t you have a good time at the party?  

—— Yes, a very good time

—— 难道你在聚会上玩得不快活吗?

—— 不,玩得很快活。

 

2)—— I don’t think I know you.

—— No, you wouldn’t

—— 我想我并不认识你。

—— 是的,你不会认识我的。

 

3)—— That’s not a very good place for papers, is it?

—— Yes, it is.

—— 那不是放稿子的好地方,是吗?

—— 不,这是个好地方。

 

上述几个句子中,“Yes”译为“不”,“No”译为“是的”。

 

一般问句中的回答,“YES”是“是”,“NO”是“不”的含义。例如:Are you a worker? Yes, I’m. / No, I’m not. (“你是工人吗?”“是的,我是工人。”“不,我不是工人。”)

 

但具体情况要具体分析,按上下文去翻译,“Yes”可能是“不”,“NO”可能是“是”的意思。因为各民族语言有其习惯表达方法,英语单词不能与汉语划等号。

 

错用“YES”和“NO”,在英语对话里引起了许多误解。这两个词在答语中代表了整个句子。有时叫做“句词”。假设你的朋友问你,“Haven’t you finished your exercises yet?”你可能回答“Yes”或“No”,“Yes”代表“I have finished them.”“No”代表“I have not finished them.”显然不可能说,“Yes, I have not finished them.”也不能说,“No, I have finished them.” 这叫做答语要一致。在一般否定问句和反意问句的前半部是否定时,答语的“Yes”是“不”,“No”是“是的”的含义。“Yes”表示不赞同提问人,“No”表示赞同提问人。

 

例如Haven’t you finished your exercises?You have’t finished your exercises, have you?

 

回答“Yes”,意思仍然是“Yes (), I have finished them.”“No”意思仍然也是“No ()I haven’t finished them.

 

在改革开放的年代里,国际友人来华访问、交流、参观等活动,外语起了交际桥梁作用。英语显得尤其重要,因为英语在世界上是一种被广泛应用的语言。我们应该学会“Yes” 和“No”的正确使用,不然会弄出笑话来。

 

如果外国人问你,“Haven’t great changes taken place in your country since liberation?”(解放以来你们的国家没有发生巨大变化吗?)你应该理直气壮地回答“Yes”。(Yes, great changes have taken place in our country since liberation .(不,解放以来我们的国家发生了巨大变化)。外国人带有一种强烈感情意识想了解你或他人的情况时可用反意问句。例如:

 

Aren’t you proud of being a Chinese? / You aren’t proud of being a Chinese, are you? (难道你作为一个中国人不感到自豪吗?)你的回答是:Yes./ Yes, I’m.(我作为一个中国人而感到骄傲。)如果有意打听某人情况,如说:He isn’t a running dog, is he? /Isn’t he a running dog? Your answer may be Yes, he is /No, he isn’t.”你的回答可能是“(不),他是一只走狗。(是),他不是走狗。”

 

有关“YESorNO”的问题需要弄清楚:

 

1)英语的肯定和否定与汉语不尽相同。英语的否定常出现在谓语部分(A)、主语(B)、宾语(C)、表语(D)、状语(E)或不定式(F)。句子有部分否定(G)、双重否定(H)、否定转移(I)等。

 

A. He doesn’t study English every day.

B. Nobody can prevent us from doing this work.

C. I have nothing to do.

D. He is not the first one to come here.

E. We’ll build the house with fewer people and less money.

F. Please tell him not to play with fire.

G. Both of them are not here.

H. We can not finish the work without your help.

I. Li Ming has not been married for a month. ( 李明结婚还不到一个月。)

 

2)英语的肯定句译成汉语时,有时汉语有否定意义。因此,一句话可能有几种表达方式。例如:

 

① 不喜欢英语。He dislikes English. 肯定句) He doesn’t like English. 否定句)

He is impolite to people. 肯定句)(他待人没有礼貌。)

He is not polite to people. 否定句)

 

3)有些不定式是肯定式,但有否定内容。

 

He is too old to work. (他太老了不能工作。)

He is too young to join the army. (他未达到参军年龄。)

 

句型:too +adj.+to+V.,太……而不……。但too接下列形容词pleasedgladwisereadyanxious,不能用这个句型译法,因为too=very/so。例如:

 

He is too ready to help you. (他乐于帮助你。)

He is too anxious to do this work. (他急于做这一动作。)

 

4)肯定句变否定句时,一些词语有不同搭配。在英语中一些词语习惯上只用于肯定句,而不在否定句中使用,若变成否定句式,要把这些词改成与其相对应的词。例如some any,too/also eitherand orvery much at allalready/still yeta long way fara lot muchplenty of/lots of much/many,等等。例如:

 

I caught some birds. I didn’t catch any birds.

He can speak English too. He can’t speak English either.

You have a lot of friends. You don’t have many friends.

He sings and dances. He never sings or dances.

 

any的合成词作主语时,谓语不能用否定式。

 

Anything can be done here. Nothing can be done here.

 

5)英语十大词类中,除了数词和冠词本身没有否定内容外,其他八大词类中某些词含有否定意义。如介词butexceptwithoutagainstbeyond,等等;连词orunlessbutotherwiseneither ...or...,等等。例如:

 

All are present but/except Li Ming.

He came here without being invited.

We’ll go there unless it rains tomorrow.

 

6)单词前后缀有否定含义。下列是肯定句:

 

The meeting is unimportant.

They ate carelessly.

Li Ying dislikes English.

 

7)除了nonotnoneneither之外,还有许多单词有否定含义,常做准否定词,如seldomlittleneverfewscarcelyhardlyrarely等。反意疑问句后半部常用肯定式。这些词位于句首时,常用倒装句。

 

You seldom hear from himdo you?

Never have I seen him before.

 

8)句子的否定转移。

 

You don’t think/suppose/guess/believe he is wrong.

It was not until ten o’clock that I went to bed.

She had not been married for many weeks.(她结婚还不到几个星期。)本句否定状语部分,不能译为“几个星期前她还没有结婚”。

It is not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street.(在这里人们不会想到在街上碰到古怪人物。)这句也是否定转移,anyone的谓语部分不能有否定式。

 

9)否定句式也可能表达肯定内容。

 

We can not praise him too much.我们无论怎样称赞他也不算过分。(can’t ...too...决不会……)

I can’t thank him too much.(我对他的感谢无论如何也不会过分。)

We can’t live without water.(没有水我们就不能生存。)(否定加否定变成肯定。)

综合上述,英语的肯定句式和否定句式内容较为丰富,因此,“Yes”或“No”的正确使用不容忽视。

    
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