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英语句子使用的目的,可分为四大类:陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。这四大类型句子都有可能出现倒装句。倒装句分为全倒装和部分倒装两种类型。浅析如下:

 

一、疑问句中出现的倒装句

 

1. 特殊疑问句中

 

1What is this?(全倒装)

2Which do you want?(部分倒装)

 

2. 一般疑问句

 

 1Do you study English every day?(部分倒装)

 2May I come in?

3Are you going to be a teacher?

 

特殊疑问句中,如果疑问词做主语或疑问词修饰主语时,句子不用倒装,即用陈述语序。例如:Who did it yesterday? Which guy can do this work?

 

一般疑问句中,常把助动词或情态动词放在句首,即位于主语前,而构成部分倒装。

 

二、感叹句中出现倒装句

 

1. What引导的感叹句

 

1What a happy life we have had(宾语在主语前面)

2What a fine day it is!(表语在主语前面)

3What a shining example Comrade Lei Feng has set us!

 

2. How引导的感叹句

 

1How happy we are!(表语在前面)

2How hard they are working!(状语在前面)

3How nice a day it is!

 

3. 副词引导词引导的感叹句

 

1There comes the bus!

2In come the students!

3Off goes the worker!

 

Whathow 引导的句子,主谓也有不倒装的。

 

What所强调的重点是名词,这一名词一般是表语或宾语,有时所强调的名词可能是主语。例如:What enormous crowd came!(《当代英语语法》中册P87)。What也可单独使用。例句:What she suffered in the old days!(《英语分类句型》P90

 

How修饰形容词、副词或动词。有时how many的搭配也可修饰名词。For how many years have I waited! 该短语作状语。(《当代英语语法》)

 

副词引导词位于句首,一方面为了强调,另一方面使情景生动。主语是名词时,主谓倒装;如果主语是人称代词,主谓不倒装。例如:Away he went to the station!

 

三、祈使句中出现的倒装

 

1. Long live the king! (《最新实用英汉辞典》P769

 

2.     Long live the People’s Republic of China!

 

3.     May you succeed! 祝你成功!

Long may he live! 愿他长命百岁!(《英华大辞典》P780

 

4.     Don’t you open the door. Don’t anyone open the door.(《当代英语语法》中册P85

 

祈使句一般无主语,有时也有主语出现。祈使句的主语要重读,代词也要重读(陈述句的主语一般不重读)。祈使句常用句号。表示一种强烈感情时,句子用感叹号。

 

四、陈述句中出现的几种倒装句

 

1. 主谓倒装

 

1Long long ago, there was a war between the birds and the beasts.

2Once upon a time there were six blind men in India.

3“Come along, then.” said the bird.

4...but toward the end there came the terrible storm...

 

2. 表语倒装

 

1Such was Albert Einsteina simple man of great achievements.(全倒装句)

2Inside the pyramids are the rooms for the bodies of kings and queens.

3A very reliable person he is.(主语是人称代词时,主谓不倒装)(《英语分类句型》P400

 

3.     宾语倒装

 

1Many happy hours she had spent planning for something nice for him.

2Twenty-one dollars they took for it.

3Not a single mistake did he make.

4Only a dictionary he never forgets to bring here.

 

宾语在前时,多数属于强调部分,句子一般不加助动词,偶尔也有助动词出现,如例句(3)。

 

五、复合句中的倒装

 

1I take back what I said.

2...and the ship would have sunk with all board had it not been for the captain.(要是没有那位船长,就会连船带人都沉没了。)

3Were I youI would go with him.

4Proud as these nobles arehe is afraid to see me.

5Not only was everything that he had taken away from himbut also his German citizenship.

6Hardly (Scarcely)had he sat down when the telephone rang.

7The harder you work, the greater will be your achievement.

 

六、其他倒装

 

陈述句中为了保持句子平衡或为了强调表语、宾语、状语等成分,或使上下文紧密衔接时,使用倒装句。

 

1On the wall is a blackboard on which were written some words,“It is no use sitting here without listening to me.”(定语从句中,主语的同位语太长)

2They entered the classroomin front of which sat a naughty boy.(使上下文紧密衔接)

3Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people were looked down upon by the foreigners.(主语加上定语后太长而表语短,所以表语在前面,强调句子平衡)

    
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