Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways. It catalyzed physical expansion, it sorted out people and land uses, and it accelerated the inherent instability of urban life. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant form city centers than they were in the premodern era. In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old business district; by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles. Now those who could afford it could live far removed from the old city center and still commute there for work, shopping, and entertainment. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. Over the same period, another 550,000 were plotted outside the city limits but within the metropolitan area. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty years – lots that could have housed five to six million people.
Of course, many were never occupied; there was always a huge surplus of subdivided, but vacant, land around Chicago and other cities. These excesses underscore a feature of residential expansion related to the growth of mass transportation: urban sprawl was essentially unplanned. It was carried out by thousands of small investors who paid little heed to coordinated land use or to future land users. Those who purchased and prepared land for residential purposes, particularly land near or outside city borders where transit lines and middle-class inhabitants were anticipated, did so to create demand as much as to respond to it. Chicago is a prime example of this process. Real estate subdivision there proceeded much faster than population growth.
1. With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concerned?
[A] Types of mass transportation.
[B] Instability of urban life.
[C] How supply and demand determine land use.
[D] The effect of mass transportation on urban expansion.
2. Why does the author mention both Boston and Chicago?
[A] To demonstrate positive and negative effects of growth.
[B] To exemplify cities with and without mass transportation.
[C] To show mass transportation changed many cities.
[D] To contrast their rate of growth.
3. According to the passage, what was one disadvantage of residential expansion?
[A] It was expensive.
[B] It happened too slowly.
[C] It was unplanned.
[D] It created a demand for public transportation.
4. The author mentions Chicago in the second paragraph as an example of a city,
[A] that is large.
[B] that is used as a model for land development.
[C] where the development of land exceeded population growth.
[D] with an excellent mass transportation system.
1. revise 改变
2. fabric 结构
3. catalyze 催化，加速
4. sort out 把……分门别类，拣选
5. omnibus 公共汽车/马车
6. trolley （美）有轨电车，（英）无轨电车
7. periphery 周围，边缘
8. sprawl 建筑物无计划延伸，蔓延，四面八方散开
9. lot 小片土地
10. underscore 强调，在下面划横线
11. transit lines 运输线路
12. subdivision （出售的）小块土地，再划分小区
1. D 公共交通运输对城市扩展的影响。文章开门见山提出这一点“公共交通运输从三个根本方面改变了美国城市的社会和经济结构。”后面文章内容就是三方面的具体化。
A. 公共交通运输类型。 B. 城市生活的不稳定性。 C. 供需如何决定土地利用。这三项文中作为具体问题提到，并不是文章涉及的主要题目。
2. C 说明公共交通改变了许多城市。答案箭第一段第四句“举例说，1850年，波士顿市界离老的商业地区几乎不到2英里，到了这世纪末，其半径扩至10英里。现在供得起的人们可以住得很远，远离老的城市中心，仍然来回去那里上班、购物和娱乐”。第七句，“举例说，在1890至1920年期间，据记载，芝加哥市界内有约250，000个新的住宅楼区大多数设在郊区。经过同样这段时期，市区外，但仍在芝加哥大都市地区内，又计划建造了550，000个住宅楼区。”
A. 表示成长的正反两方面效果。B. 举有无公共交通运输的城市为例。 D. 对比两者成长率；都不是本文中举两城市例子的目的。
3. C 没有计划。见第二段第三句起“城市扩展蔓延根本无计划，好几千个小的投资商进行扩展，毫不考虑相互协调配合利用土地，也不考虑未来土地利用。”
A. 太贵和 B.太慢，两个选项，文内没有提。D. 它创造了对公共交通运输的需求。这不是住宅扩展的一个缺点，而是三个根本改变城市的一个方面。见第一段第三句：“通过大量开发未占土地扩建住宅，公共汽车、马车、铁路、来回火车，有轨电车把已有人定居的居住区向外扩展了三四倍，比他们先现代时期的市中心更远。”
A. 城市大。B. 用作土地开发的样板。 D. 具有优越的公共的交通系统。
Science is a dominant theme in our culture. Since it touches almost every facet of our life, educated people need at least some acquaintance with its structure and operation. They should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they are. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.
This book is written for the intelligent student or lay person whose acquaintance with science is superficial; for the person who has been presented with science as a musty storehouse of dried facts; for the person who sees the chief objective of science as the production of gadgets; and for the person who views the scientists as some sort of magician. The book can be used to supplement a course in any science, to accompany any course that attempts to give an understanding of the modern world, or – independently of any course – simply to provide a better understanding of science. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitudes and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are, and what they do. It will give them an awareness and understanding of the relationship between science and our culture and an appreciation of the roles science may play in our culture. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.
We have tried to present in this book an accurate and up-to-date picture of the scientific community and the people who populate it. That population has in recent years come to comprise more and more women. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions. In discussing these changes and contribution, however, we are faced with a language that is implicitly sexist, one that uses male nouns or pronouns in referring to unspecified individuals. To offset this built-in bias, we have adopted the policy of using plural nouns and pronouns whenever possible and, when absolutely necessary, alternating he and she. This policy is far form being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgment of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of the human race equally.
We have also tried to make the book entertaining as well as informative. Our approach is usually informal. We feel, as do many other scientists, that we shouldn’t take ourselves too seriously. As the reader may observe, we see science as a delightful pastime rather than as a grim and dreary way to earn a living.
1. According to the passage, ‘scientific subculture’ means
[A] cultural groups that are formed by scientists.
[B] people whose knowledge of science is very limited.
[C] the scientific community.
[D] people who make good contribution to science.
2. We need to know something about the structure and operation of science because
[A] it is not easy to understand the things that excite and frustrate scientists.
[B] Science affects almost every aspect of our life.
[C] Scientists live in a specific subculture.
[D] It is easier to understand general characteristics of science.
3. The book mentioned in this passage is written for readers who
[A] are intelligent college students and lay person who do not know much about science.
[B] are good at producing various gadgets.
[C] work in a storehouse of dried facts.
[D] want to have a superficial understanding of science.
4. According to this passage,
[A] English is a sexist language.
[B] only in the scientific world is the role of women increasing rapidly.
[C] women are making significant contributions to eliminating the inadequacy of our language.
[D] male nouns or pronouns should not be used to refer to scientists.
5. This passage most probably is
[A] a book review.
[B] the preface of a book.
[C] the postscript of a book.
[D] the concluding part of a book.
1. subculture 亚文化群（指在一个社会或一种文化内具有独特性的一群人）
2. superficial 肤浅的，浅薄的，表面的
3. lay person 外行，门外汉，俗人
4. musty 发毒的，老朽的，陈腐的
5. gadget 小玩意儿，小配件，新发明
6. pervasive 渗透的，弥漫的，遍布的
7. populate 居住于……中，在……中占一席之地
8. implicit 含蓄的，内含的
9. unspecified 未特别提出的
10. offset 抵消，补偿
1. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.
2. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitude and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are and what they do.
3. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.
4. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions.
5. This policy is far from being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgement of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of human race equally.
1. C 科学社区。答案在第一段第二句，人们也该了解科学家生活在其中的亚文化群以及他们是什么样的人。第三段又讲到，有关科学社区的画面以及妇女对科学亚文化的贡献。可见科学社区即亚文化。
A. 科学家所组成种种文化群体。 B. 科学知识有限的一些人。 C. 对科学作出很大贡献的人。
2. B 因为科学几乎影响到我们生活的各个方面。文章开综明旨点出：科学是我们文化中的重要主题，由于它几乎涉及到我们生活的每一方面，有知识的人至少需要熟悉一些结构和作用。
A. 了解激发和挫伤科学家的事情可不太容易。（比较难） C. 科学家生活在特定的亚文化群中。D. 了解科学的一般特性比较容易。
3. A 不太了解科学的大学生或门外汉。第二段首句就点出了这本书为对科学一知半解的大学生和门外汉所写，为某些人，一直把科学看作干巴巴的事实堆砌的发霉的石屋的人；为那种把科学的主要目的视为生产小配件的人；为那些把科学视为某种魔术的人而写。这说明主要为A项人所写，对科学了解不多的大学生和普通人。
B. 善于生产各种小配件。 C. 在干巴巴的事实堆砌的石屋中工作。 D. 相对科学有肤浅了解的人。
4. D 不应当用阳性的名词和代词去指科学家。第三段集中讲了这本书提供精确而又现代的有关科学社区（社会）和居住在其中的人的画卷。近年来，越来越多的妇女包括进来，原因是许多妇女进入传统上为男人统治的领域，并作出巨大贡献，所以妇女在科学亚文化群中的增多并不是罕见的偶然事件，而是社会各部门明显趋势的组成部分。在讨论其变化和贡献时，我们面临着隐含性别歧视的语言――用阳性名词和代词来指未指定人物，为了消除这种偏颇，我们在可能和必要时采用了复数名词和代词来取代他或她。
A. 英语是一种性别语言。 B. 只有在科学领域中，妇女的作用增长很快。 C. 妇女在晓民我们语言中的不适当性作出了巨大的贡献。根据此题注释说明这三项都不对。英语不能说成是有性别的语言，其中虽有些词性表示男性或女性。文内明确指科学界妇女增多是整个社会的趋势的组成部分。由于妇女在科学界的贡献，所以不能再用阳性名词或代词去指科学界，并不是在消灭语言……
5. B 书的前言，见文章大意。
A. 书的评论。 C. 书跋、书的附录。 D. 书的结论部分。
It looked like a typical business meeting. Six men, neatly dressed in white shirts and ties filed into the boardroom of a small Jakarta company and sat down at a long table. But instead of consulting files or hearing reports, they closed their eyes and began to meditate, consulting the spirits of ancient Javanese kings. Mysticism touches almost every aspect of life in Indonesia and business is no exception. One of the meditators said his weekly meditation sessions are aimed mainly at bringing the peace of mind that makes for good decision-making. But the insight gained from mystic communication with spirits of wise kings has also helped boost the profits of his five companies.
Mysticism and profits have come together since the 13th century introduction of Islam to Indonesia by Indian Moslem merchants. Those devout traders, called ‘Wali Ullah’ or ‘those close to God, ’ energetically spread both trade and religion by adapting their appeals to the native mysticism of Java. Legends attribute magic power of foreknowledge to the Wali Ullah. These powers were believed to be gained through meditation and fasting.
Businessman Hadisiko said his group fasts and meditates all night every Thursday to become closer to God and to contact the spirits of the great men of the past. ‘If we want to employ someone at the managerial level, we meditate together and often the message comes that this man can’t hole onto money or he is untrustworthy. Or maybe the spirits will tell us he should be hired.’ Hadiziko hastened to add that his companies also hold modern personnel management systems and that formal qualifications are essential for a candidate even to be considered. Perspective investments also are considered through mystic meditation. ‘With the mind relaxed and open, it is easier to be objective in judging the risk of a new venture. Meditation and contact with the wisdom of the old leaders sharpens your own insight and intuition. Then you have to apply that intuition to the information you have and work hard to be successful. ’ Mystic meditation helped reverse a business slide his companies experienced in the mid-1980. Operating with normal business procedures, he lost more than $ 3 millions in that year alone. Meditation brought back his peace of mind. Putting the right persons in the right jobs and gaining confidence in his business decisions were the keys to a turning around that has brought expansion and profitability. The mysticism in Hadisiko’s boardroom is part of a growing movement in Indonesia called Kebatinan – the ‘search for the inner self.’
One of his managers, Yusuf Soemado, who studied business administration at Harvard University, compared the idea of mystic management to western system of positive thinking. ‘Willpower and subconscious mind are recognized as important factors in business. Such approaches as psycho-cybernetics, Carnegie’s think and growth rates, or the power of positive thinking are western attempts to tap the same higher intelligence that we contact through meditation,’ he said.
1. What is the most important factor in their doing business?
2. Whom do they consult?
[A] The spirits of ancient Javanese kings.
[B] Wali Ullah.
[C] Old Kings.
3. Why did Hadisike hasten to add ‘his companies also hold modern personnel management systems…’?
[A] He thought Mysticism was not so good as expected.
[B] To show they too focused on qualifications.
[C] To show they hired qualified persons.
[D] To show the possibility of combination of the scientific management with religion.
4. According to the passage, the function of the meditation is
[A] to gain profit from the god.
[B] to gain peace of mind to make decision.
[C] to gain foreknowledge.
[D] to gain objective conclusion.
5. What does ‘operating with normal business procedures’ refer to?
[A] Adopting the western way of doing business.
[B] Ordinary way of doing business without meditation and fasting.
[C] Contact with God.
[D] Putting right persons in the right jobs.
1. file into 鱼贯而入，排队进去
2. Jakarta 雅加达
3. meditate 沉思，冥想，反省
4. Java 爪哇
5. Javanese 爪哇的
6. mysticism 神秘主义
7. boost 促进，增加，提高
8. devout 虔诚的，热诚的
9. appeal (to) 向……呼吁，求助于，魅力
10. legend 传说，神话
11. fasting 禁食，斋戒
12. hold onto 抓紧，保住
13. personnel management system 人事管理制度
14. perspective investment 远景投资
15. venture （商业）投机，风险
16. sharpen 使……敏锐/尖锐，磨尖
17. business slide 买卖/企业滑坡，下滑
18. turn around （生意）好转，转变
19. subconscious 下意识的，潜意识的
20. cybernetics 控制论
21. Carnegie 卡耐基
22. tap 开拓，选择
1. Mysticism touches almost every aspect of life in Indonesia and business is no exception.
2. Those devout traders, called ‘Wali Ullah’ or ‘those close to God, ’ energetically spread both trade and religion by adapting their appeals to the native mysticism of Java.
3. Putting the right persons in the right jobs and gaining confidence in his business decisions were the keys to a turning around that has brought expansion and profitability.
4. Search for the inner self.
5. Such approaches as psycho-cybernetics, Carnegie’s think and growth rates, or the power of positive thinking are western attempts to tap the same higher intelligence that we contact through meditation.
1. C 沉思。这在第一断已有说明。
A. 神秘主义。是个总的概念，笼罩生活各方面。而不是具体的做法和重要因素。 B. 宗教。 D. 投资。
2. A 爪哇古代帝王之精灵。答案在第一段。
B. Wali Ullah是指印度穆斯林商人。这些虔诚的商人叫做Wali Ullah或者成为接近主的人。传说神话也把先知的力量归功于Wali Ullah。C. 老帝王。D. 卡耐基，1835-1919是生于苏格兰的美国钢铁工业家和慈善家。他有一套管理企业的办法，称为卡耐基思想（管理法）。
3. B 他们也重视资历、才能。这在第三段中第二行起，商人 Hadisiko讲话清楚说明“如果我们要雇佣管理人员，我们就一起沉思，常常会有这种信息来临：这个人不能管理钱财或者他不可靠。也可能神灵告诉我们应当雇佣他。接着他匆忙补充说他的公司也采用现代人事管理系统，即要考虑雇佣的人员最根本的条件仍是正式资历”。
A. 他认为神秘主义不像想象中那么好。C. 表明他们雇佣人才。上下文说明，他所以补充是说明他们也重视资格。D. 表明科学管理和宗教结合的可能性。Hadisike语中没有这种意思。但不能说他们雇佣人才不管宗教。
4. B 得到冷静头脑来决策。这在第三段后半部分讲到。“远景的投资也是通过神秘的沉思加以考虑。有着放松和开放的头脑，易于客观地判断新投资的风险。沉思和过去领袖的接触会是你的洞察力和感官变得敏锐。”第一段第五行“其中一位沉思者说每星期的沉思会主要目标是带来一个平静的头脑，作出好决策。”
A. 从上帝那里得到利润。 C. 取得先知。不对，先知的能力归于Wali Ullah。D. 得到客观的结论。文内只提到，头脑放松容易客观地判断投资风险与否，并不是客观的结论。
A. 采用西方买卖方式（交易方式）。文内没有点明正常就是西方方式。C. 和上帝接触。D. 知人善任。
Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the consequent loss of talent to a nation in need of Ph. D. s. Some have placed the dropouts loss as high as 50 percent. The extent of the loss was, however, largely a matter of expert guessing. Last week a well-rounded study was published. It was published. It was based on 22,000 questionnaires sent to former graduate students who were enrolled in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to be groundless.
The dropouts rate was found to be 31 per cent, and in most cases the dropouts, while not completing the Ph. D. requirement, went on to productive work. They are not only doing well financially, but, according to the report, are not far below the income levels of those who went on to complete their doctorates.
Discussing the study last week, Dr. Tucker said the project was initiated ‘because of the concern frequently expressed by graduate faculties and administrators that some of the individuals who dropped out of Ph. D. programs were capable of competing the requirement for the degree. Attrition at the Ph. D. level is also thought to be a waste of precious faculty time and a drain on university resources already being used to capacity. Some people expressed the opinion that the shortage of highly trained specialists and college teachers could be reduced by persuading the dropouts to return to graduate schools to complete the Ph. D.’
“The results of our research” Dr. Tucker concluded, “did not support these opinions.”
1. Lack of motivation was the principal reason for dropping out.
2. Most dropouts went as far in their doctoral program as was consistent with their levels of ability or their specialities.
3. Most dropouts are now engaged in work consistent with their education and motivation.
Nearly 75 per cent of the dropouts said there was no academic reason for their decision, but those who mentioned academic reason cited failure to pass the qualifying examination, uncompleted research and failure to pass language exams. Among the single most important personal reasons identified by dropouts for non-completion of their Ph. D. program, lack of finances was marked by 19 per cent.
As an indication of how well the dropouts were doing, a chart showed 2% in humanities were receiving $ 20,000 and more annually while none of the Ph. D. ‘s with that background reached this figure. The Ph. D. ‘s shone in the $ 7,500 to $ 15,000 bracket with 78% at that level against 50% for the dropouts. This may also be an indication of the fact that top salaries in the academic fields, where Ph. D. ‘s tend to rise to the highest salaries, are still lagging behind other fields.
As to the possibility of getting dropouts back on campus, the outlook was glum. The main condition which would have to prevail for at least 25 % of the dropouts who might consider returning to graduate school would be to guarantee that they would retain their present level of income and in some cases their present job.
1. The author states that many educators feel that
[A] steps should be taken to get the dropouts back to campus.
[B] the dropouts should return to a lower quality school to continue their study.
[C] the Ph. D. holder is generally a better adjusted person than the dropout.
[D] The high dropouts rate is largely attributable to the lack of stimulation on the part of faculty members.
2. Research has shown that
[A] Dropouts are substantially below Ph. D. ‘s in financial attainment.
[B] the incentive factor is a minor one in regard to pursuing Ph. D. studies.
[C] The Ph. D. candidate is likely to change his field of specialization if he drops out.
[D] about one-third of those who start Ph. D. work do not complete the work to earn the degree.
3. Meeting foreign language requirements for the Ph. D.
[A] is the most frequent reason for dropping out.
[B] is more difficult for the science candidate than for the humanities candidate.
[C] is an essential part of many Ph. D. programs.
[D] does not vary in difficulty among universities.
4. After reading the article, one would refrain from concluding that
[A] optimism reigns in regard to getting Ph. D. dropouts to return to their pursuit of the degree.
[B] a Ph. D. dropout, by and large, does not have what it takes to learn the degree.
[C] colleges and universities employ a substantial number of Ph. D. dropouts.
[D] Ph. D. ‘s are not earning what they deserve in nonacademic positions.
5. It can be inferred that the high rate of dropouts lies in
[A] salary for Ph. D. too low.
[B] academic requirement too high.
[C] salary for dropouts too high.
[D] 1000 positions.
1. dropout 辍学者，中途退学
2. well-rounded 全面的
3. attrition 缩/减员，磨损
4. drain 枯竭
5. bracket 一类人，（尤指按收入分类的）阶层
6. lagging behind other fields 落后于其它领域
7. glum 阴郁的
1. Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the consequent loss of talent to a nation in need of Ph. D. s.
2. It was base on 22,000questionnaires sent to former graduate students who were enrolled in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to be groundless.
3. Attrition at the Ph. D. lever is also thought to be a waste of precious faculty time and a drain on university resources already being used to capacity.
4. This may also be an indication of the fact that top salaries in the academic fields, where Ph. D. ‘s tend to rise to the highest salaries, are still lagging behind other fields.
【结构分析】the fact的同位语that从句中的where是定语从句，修饰academic fields。
1. A. 许多教育工作者感到应采取步骤让辍学者回校学习，特别是有些学科。这在第三段最后一句话：“有些人建议高级专家和大学教师短缺现象可以通过劝说辍学者返回校园完成博士学位来减少。”
B. 辍学者应回到稍第几的学校去完成学业。 C. 有博士学位的人一般比辍学者具有较好的适应性。 D. 高辍学率主要原因在于教师方面缺乏刺激鼓励。这三项文内没有提。
A. 辍学者的经济收入比博士生低许多。这是错的。见倒数第二段：“作为辍学者干得真不错的证明，统计图表说明2％人文学科的辍学者年收入为20000多没劲，没有一个同样背景的博士生达到这个数字。7000至15000美元年收入水平为博士生的78％，辍学者仅为50％。” B. 在博士学习中刺激因素较小。 C. 博士预备生如果中途退学很可能改变其专业领域。
3. C. 博士生应达到外语要求的水平是许多博士生课程的一个基本组成部分。这在第四段有所表示：“约75％的退学者说，他们决定退学并不是处于学术的原因，而处于学术原因的退学者提出：难以通过资格考试，难以完成研究，通不过外语考试”。这里看出外语是博士生课程的基本组成部分。
A. 它是退学最频繁的原因。 B. 它对理科博士生比文科博士应考生更难。 D. 它在大学中的难度并没有不同。
4. A. 读完这篇文章，人们不会有这种结论。这在第三段末和最后一段。第三段末：“我们研究的结果并不支持这些一件（包括返回校园之意见）：⑴缺乏动力是退学的主要原因。⑵大多数退学者在博士课程上已经达到和他们的能力水平和专业水平相一致的水平。⑶大多数退学者现在从事的工作和他们所受教育和动机相一致。”最后一段：“至于返回校园的可能性，前景不乐观。至少有25％的退学生可能考虑返回研究生院就读，条件是保证他们保留现有的收入水平，有些还要保留他们目前的工作。”
B. 博士生退学者，大体而论，并不具备得到学位所需要的一切。 C. 学院和大学雇佣了许多退学生。 D. 博士生在非学术岗位上没有挣到他们应得的钱。B.、C.两项文内没提。D.不对，参见难句译注4。
5. A. 博士生的工资太低。见第四题A.的译注和难句译注4。
B. 学术要求太高。这只是某些因学术原因辍学者之强调点。 C. 辍学者工资太高。不是太高而是有一部分高于博士生。见第二题D项注释。 D. 职位低。文内没有提。
From the health point of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous diseases. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads. Man versus the motor-car ! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly killed each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen.
It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personality. There is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering-wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-years-olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jealousies seem to be brought to the surface by the act of driving.
The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behaviour. Everything is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy tragic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than a statistic, to be conveniently forgotten.
It is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste of human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Here are a few examples of some the things that might be done. The driving test should be standardized and made far more difficult than it is; all the drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be mad much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh. But surely nothing should be considered as too severe if tit results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motor-cars.
1. The main idea of this passage is
[A] Traffic accidents are mainly caused by motorists.
[B] Thousands of people the world over are killed each year.
[C] The laws of some countries about driving are too lax.
[D] Only stricter traffic laws can prevent accidents.
2. What does the author think of society toward motorists?
[A] Society smiles on the motorists.
[B] Huge car parks are built in the cities and towns.
[C] Victims of accidents are nothing.
[D] Society condones their rude driving.
3. Why does the author say:’ his car becomes the extension of his personality?’
[A] Driving can show his real self.
[B] Driving can show the other part of his personality.
[C] Driving can bring out his character.
[D] His car embodies his temper.
4. Which of the followings is NOT mentioned as a way against traffic accidents?
[A] Build more highways.
[B] Stricter driving tests.
[C] Test drivers every three years.
[D] raise age limit and lay down safety specifications.
5. The attitude of the author is
1. immunise 使免疫，使免除
2. expectation of life = life expectancy 平均寿命
3. versus = against 对顶，反对
4. mutilate 伤害
5. wilful 任性的，固执的
6. benign 宽厚的，仁慈的
7. condone 宽容
8. desecrate 亵渎，玷污
9. code 法规，规定，惯例
10. stringent 严格的，紧急的，迫切的
11. performance 演出，成品，这里是指car’s behavior such as speed, function etc.可译成行为，汽车行为、功能等。
1. Man versus the motor-car ! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing.
2. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned.
1. D 只有更严格的交通法规才能制止交通事故。这在最后一段的结论中体现的最清楚。前面几段只是讲造成事故的种种原因。其目的就是：“是制定世界交通法规以减少无谓的生命浪费的时候了。对于开车，有些国家的法规太松弛，甚至最严格的国家也不够严格。世界公认之法律只可能对交通事故率起大大降低的作用（有非常好的效果。）”这里列出几件要干的事：“驾驶测试应当标准化，比现在的要严格；所有死机每三年考核一次；年轻人驾车的允许年龄应提高到21岁；全部机动车每年都应经过严格的安全测试（测定其安全性）……这些步骤可能听起来异常严厉，可是，如果其结果事减少每年死伤人数的话，就不存在什么太严格的事了。”
A. 主要是机动车死机造成的交通事故。 B. 全世界每年有几千人丧生。 C. 有些国家的交通法规太松弛。这三道答案都是文中谈到某一点，不能作为中心目的。
2. D 社会宽容这种野蛮开车行径。答案就在第三段：“令人惊讶的是社会对司机宽厚地笑笑，似乎宽容他们的行为。一切都为他们的方便而干。人们允许城市由于交通拥挤而几乎不能居住了，大型停车场把城镇“弄得”丑陋不堪，公路网玷污了乡村，每年大量的杀伤仅仅成为统计数字，被很容易地忘记。”
A. 社会对司机笑容可掬。B. 大型停车场建在市和镇上。C. 交通死难者等于零。这三项都只是第三段的一个个具体事实。社会正是通过这一件件事来宽容司机野蛮开车，而造成事故。
3. A “他的车就是他个性的外延”这句话就体现了“开车表现他真正的自我，真实的个性”。第二段讲的很清楚：“这么说完全正确：当一个人坐在方向盘后，他的车就成为他个性的外延。毫无疑问，汽车常常表现了人之最坏的品质。平常很安详愉快的人一坐在方向盘后可能就变得难以认识。他们咒骂、行为差劲、好斗、固执、任性得就像两岁的孩子。他们所有隐藏的失落、失望和忌妒感，似乎都在开车中暴露出来”。
B. 表现他个性的另一面。 C. 表现了他的性格。 D. 他的车体现了他的脾气秉性。只是表现自我中的某个事实。
4. A 只有建更多高速公路。没有提。
B. 更难的测试。C. 每三年对司机进行一次考察。 D. 提高年龄段和制定安全条例。都提到。见第一题译注。
5. B 批评的态度。文章第一、二、三段指出了造成交通事故的原因，呼吁各国制定严格的交通法规，批评现有的交通法规松弛不严格，最后指出世界是人类的，不是摩托车的等等，都说明作者对上述种种都具批评的态度。
A. 讽刺的。 C. 哀求的、呼吁的。 D. 富有战斗性的。
His ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar system.
“You appear to be astonished, ” Holmes said, smiling at my expression. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it. You see, I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose: A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty in laying his hand upon it. It is a mistake to think that the little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you know before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”
“But the Solar System! ” I protested.
“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently.
One morning, I picked up a magazine from the table and attempted to while away the time with it, while my companion munched silently at his toast. One of the articles had a pencil mark at the heading, and I naturally began to run my eye through it.
Its somewhat ambitious title was “The Book of Life, ” and it attempted to show how much an observant man might learn by an accurate and systematic examination of all that came in his way. It struck me as being a remarkable mixture of shrewdness and of absurdity. The reasoning was close and intense, but the deduction appeared to me to be far-fetched and exaggerated. The writer claimed by a momentary expression, a twitch of a muscle or a glance of an eye, to fathom a man’s inmost thought. Deceit, according to him, was impossibility in the case of one trained to observation and analysis. His conclusions were as infallible as so many propositions of Euclid. So startling would his results appear to the uninitiated that until they learned the processes by which he had arrived at them they might well consider him as a necromancer.
“From a drop of water, ”said the writer, “a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic. So all life is a great chain, the nature of which is known whenever we are shown a single link of it. Like all other arts, the science of Deduction and Analysis is one which can be acquired by long and patient study, nor is life long enough to allow any mortal to attain the highest possible perfection in it. ”
This smartly written piece of theory I could not accept until a succession of evidences justified it.
1. What is the author’s attitude toward Holmes?
2. What way did the author take to stick out Holmes’ uniqueness?
3. What was the Holmes’ idea about knowledge-learning?
[A]Learning what every body learned.
[B]Learning what was useful to you.
[C]Learning whatever you came across.
[D]Learning what was different to you.
4. What did the article mentioned in the passage talk about?
[A]One may master the way of reasoning through observation.
[B]One may become rather critical through observation and analysis.
[C]One may become rather sharp through observation and analysis.
[D]One may become practical through observation and analysis.
1. Thomas Carlyle 托马斯·卡莱尔 1795-1881美国作家、历史家、哲学家
2. jumble (up) 搞乱，使混乱
3. lay hand on (upon) sth. 抓住，找到
4. at best 最好的情况下
5. elbow out (off) 用胳膊肘挤出，推出
6. deuce = devil
what the deuce is it to me? 这里表示福尔摩斯的厌恶心理。义：这倒霉的词儿与我有什么关系？
7. while away the time 消磨/打发时间
8. shrewdness 机敏，敏锐，犀利
9. far-fetched 牵强附会，不自然
10. fathom 看穿/透，推测，探索
11. infallible 一贯正确
12. uninitiated 对某事无知的
13. Euclid 欧几里德（古希腊数学家）
14. necromancer 巫师
1. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty in laying his hand upon it.
【结构简析】主从句结构，主句A fool … 后跟lumber的定从that he comes across。从句so that 中有一knowledge的定从which; or链接前后两个分词crowded out 与jumbled up;但第一个so that 从句又是后面so that 的主句。
2. Its somewhat ambitious title was “The Book of Life, ” and it attempted to show how much an observant man might learn by an accurate and systematic examination of all that came in his way.
3. So startling would his results appear to the uninitiated that until they learned the processes by which he had arrived at them they might well consider him as a necromancer.
【结构简析】复合主从句，so that句型。So句是倒装。正常句型应为：His results would appear so startling to the uninitiated that…，that句中又是主从句，从句用until连接，中插by which定语从句修饰 the processes。
4. Like all other arts, the Science of Deduction and Analysis is one which can be acquired by long and patient study, nor is life long enough to allow any mortal to attain the highest possible perfection in it.
1. A 赞扬。作者以无知烘托人物之有知，以他本人的反对批评观点来证明人物的正确。否定及所谓机刺旨在铺垫。正反对比赞扬福之精明强悍，才智超人，洞察力强。
2. C 作者采用对比手法。
3. B 学习对你有用之物。第二段福之表白，他把头脑比作一个小小的空屋，不能随意选择家具（知识）塞满空间，应选择“有用之才”，免得填满了废物，把有用之才挤出去。
4. C 通过观察和分析人会变得很敏锐。最后二段都是讲福所写文章的内容。善于观察和分析的人可以一眼看透人之本质，一点水能知大西洋。这种一叶知秋的本领是通过长期观察、分析研究而得。也就是说，通过观察分析，人可以变得敏感聪慧，因为万物都有联系。
Police fired tear gas and arrested more than 5,000 passively resisting protestors Friday in an attempt to break up the largest antinuclear demonstration ever staged in the United States. More than 135,000 demonstrators confronted police on the construction site of a 1,000-megawatt nuclear power plant scheduled to provide power to most of southern New Hampshire. Organizers of the huge demonstration said, the protest was continuing despite the police actions. More demonstrators were arriving to keep up the pressure on state authorities to cancel the project. The demonstrator had charged that the project was unsafe in the densely populated area, would create thermal pollution in the bay, and had no acceptable means for disposing of its radioactive wasters. The demonstrations would go on until the jails and the courts were so overloaded that the state judicial system would collapse.
Governor Stanforth Thumper insisted that there would be no reconsideration of the power project and no delay in its construction set for completion in three years. “This project will begin on time and the people of this state will begin to receive its benefits on schedule. Those who break the law in misguided attempts to sabotage the project will be dealt with according to the law,” he said. And police called in reinforcements from all over the state to handle the disturbances.
The protests began before dawn Friday when several thousand demonstrators broke through police lines around the cordoned-off construction site. They carried placards that read “No Nukes is Good Nukes,” “Sunpower, Not Nuclear Power,” and “Stop Private Profits from Public Peril.” They defied police order to move from the area. Tear gas canisters fired by police failed to dislodge the protestors who had come prepared with their own gas masks or facecloths. Finally gas-masked and helmeted police charged into the crowd to drag off the demonstrators one by one. The protestors did not resist police, but refused to walk away under their own power. Those arrested would be charged with unlawful assembly, trespassing, and disturbing the peace.
1. What were the demonstrators protesting about?
[A] Private profits.
[B] Nuclear Power Station.
[C] The project of nuclear power construction.
[D] Public peril.
2. Who had gas-masks?
[B] A part of the protestors.
[D] Both B and C.
3. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as a reason for the demonstration?
[A] Public transportation.
[B] Public peril.
[D] Disposal of wastes.
4. With whom were the jails and courts overloaded?
[A] With prisoners.
[B] With arrested demonstrators.
[C] With criminals.
[D] With protestors.
5. What is the attitude of Governor Stanforth Thumper toward the power project and the demonstration?
1. tear gas 催泪瓦斯
2. passively resisting protestor 不抵抗的抗议者
3. stage 发起，举行，上演
4. break up 驱散，终止
5. cordon 警戒线，警戒
6. nuke （美俚）核武器，核电站
7. defy 公然蔑视/反抗
8. canister 罐，筒，榴霰弹筒
9. dislodge 赶走
10. charge 冲锋，向前冲
11. trespass 非法侵入，扰乱
1. Police fired tear gas and arrested more than 5,000 passively resisting protestors Friday in an attempt to break up the largest antinuclear demonstration ever staged in the United States.
【结构简析】句中间用in an attempt介词短语和staged分词使句子变长。Staged修饰demonstration。
2. The protests began before dawn Friday when several thousand demonstrators broke through police lines around the cordoned-off construction site.
1. C 抗议建设核电站计划。不是抗议核电站。至于
B. 核电站还未建，所以不对。A. 私人利益和 D. 公共危险，这些都是示威牌上之口号不是抗议的主攻方向。
2. D 双方。最后一段第四行最后和第五行“抗议者准备了他们自己的防毒面具或面罩。最后，头戴防毒面具和头盔的警察冲进人群一个一个地抓逮示威者。”所以说两方面都有防毒面具。
3. A 公共交通运输。
B. 公共危险。 C. 污染。 D. 废料处理，是三个抗议的理由。
4. B 被逮捕的示威者。第一段最后一行“示威要继续下去直到州监牢和州法庭人满为患，从而使州司法体系垮台。”说明示威者准备去坐牢，决不服输的决心。而人多到监牢装不下证明州司法的问题。所以这里只能是被抓的示威者。
A. 犯人。 C. 罪犯。D.抗议者。警察不可能抓所有的抗议者。关在牢里的只能是被抓的示威者。
5. A 固执己见，冥顽不化。见第二段他坚持说核电站计划不用再考虑，三年内一定要建成，计划准时开始，本州人民到时候就能获益。对这些违法企图破坏计划的人依法惩处。并且从州内各处调集警察来处理这次“骚乱”。从语言到行动都说明，这位州长固执己见，顽固得很。
B. 坚持的。 C. 不能解决的。 D. 可宽恕的。
The stone age, The Iron Age. Entire epochs have been named for materials. So what to call the decades ahead? The choice will be tough. Welcome to the age of superstuff. Material science -- once the least sexy technology – is bursting with new, practical discoveries led by superconducting ceramics that may revolutionize electronics. But superconductors are just part of the picture: from house and cars to cook pots and artificial teeth, the world will someday be made of different stuff. Exotic plastics, glass and ceramics will shape the future just as surely as have genetic engineering and computer science.
The key to the new materials is researchers’ increasing ability to manipulate substances at the molecular level. Ceramics, for example, have long been limited by their brittleness. But by minimizing the microscopic imperfections that cause it, scientists are making far stronger ceramics that still retain such qualities as hardness and heat resistance. Ford Motor Co. now uses ceramic tools to cut steel. A firm called Kyocera has created a line of ceramic scissors and knives that stay sharp for years and never rust or corrode.
A similar transformation has overtaken plastics. High-strength polymers now form bridges, ice-skating rinks and helicopter rotors. And one new plastic that generates electricity when vibrated or pushed is used in electric guitars, touch sensors for robot hands and karate jackets that automatically record each punch and chop. Even plastic litter, which once threatened to permanently blot the landscape, has proved amenable to molecular tinkering. Several manufacturers now make biodegradable forms; some plastic six-pack rings for example, gradually decompose when exposed to sunlight. Researchers are developing ways to make plastics as recyclable as metal or glass. Besides, composites – plastic reinforced with fibers of graphite or other compounds – made the round-the-world flight of the voyager possible and have even been proved in combat: a helmet saved an infantryman’s life by deflecting two bullets in the Grenada invasion.
Some advanced materials are old standard with a new twist. The newest fiberoptic cable that carry telephone calls cross-country are made of glass so transparent that a piece of 100 miles thick is clearer than a standard window pane.
But new materials have no impact until they are made into products. And that transition could prove difficult, for switching requires lengthy research and investment. It can be said a firmer handle on how to move to commercialization will determine the success or failure of a country in the near future.
1. How many new materials are mentioned in this passage?
2. Why does the author mention genetic engineering and computer science?
[A] To compare them with the new materials.
[B] To show the significance of the new materials on the future world.
[C] To compare the new materials to them.
[D] To explain his view point.
3. Why is transition difficult?
[A] Because transition requires money and time.
[B] Because many manufacturers are unwilling to change their equipment.
[C] Because research on new materials is very difficult.
[D]Because it takes 10 years.
4. Where lies success of a country in the New Age of superstuff?
[A] It lies in research.
[B] It lies in investment.
[C] It lies in innovation.
[D] It lies in application.
1. superstuff 超级材料
2. superconducting ceramic 超导陶瓷
3. exotic 神奇的
4. shape 塑造，成型
5. brittleness 脆性
6. polymer 聚合体
7. karate jacket 空手道外衣
8. touch sensor 触及传感器
9. each punch and chop 每一个击、打
10. blot 玷污，损害风景的东西
11. tinker 修补，调整
12. amendable 服从于，遵循的
13. biodegradable 能生物递减分解的
14. six-pack rings 放六个罐子的环状物
15. decompose 分解
16. recyclable 可循环（使用的）
17. infantryman 步兵
18. deflect 使偏斜，使转向
19. a new twist 一个新的观点，方法
1. Material science – once the least sexy technology – is bursting with new, practical discoveries led by superconducting ceramics that may revolutionize electronics.
2. Some advanced materials are old standard with a new twist. The newest fiberoptic cables that carry telephone calls cross-country are made of glass so transparent that a piece of 100 miles thick is clearer than a standard window pane.
1. B 三种超导材料。答案再第一段最后一句“神奇的塑料、玻璃和陶瓷”。下面各段具体讲这三种材料。第二段讲陶瓷：“新材料之关键在于研究工作者不断提高在分子水平上处理物质的能力。举陶瓷为例，由于它的脆性，长期来应用范围有限。但是通过改善导致脆性的微小缺陷，科学家制造出一种保持原有硬度和抗热性，但坚实得多的陶瓷”。第三段讲塑料。“类似的转折发生在塑料上，高强度的塑料建成了桥梁、溜冰场、直升机的叶轮。一种震动或推动就能发电的新型塑料用于电子吉他上，触及传感塑料用于机械手和空手道外衣上，它能自动记录每次击打。”后面谈及塑料垃圾可以处理，或者制造可分解还原的塑料制品。塑料内加入其他化合物加强性能。第四段讲有些高级材料由新的改变，最新的光纤电缆由玻璃制成，透明度极高，100英里厚的一块其清晰度比一块普通窗玻璃还高。
2. B 说明这种新材料对未来世界的意义。答案在第一段：“神奇的塑料、玻璃和陶瓷一定会象生物工程和计算机一样将改变世界。”
A. 把它们和新材料相比较，这里不仅仅是比较，而是说明三者都具同样的作用－－改变世界。 C. 把新材料比作它们。也不仅仅是比喻比拟。与A一样没有说到核心电。D. 说明他的观点。太笼统。
3. A 转折需要钱和时间。见最后一段“可是新材料只有制成产品才有影响，而这个转折可能很困难，因为转折需要长期的研究和投资。可以这么说，在不久的将来，更牢牢地掌握如何把材料转变成商品将决定一个国家之成败。”
B. 因为许多制造商不愿改变他们的设备。C. 因为新材料的研究非常困难。 D. 转折要华上十年时间。这三项文内没有涉及。
4. D 在超级材料时代已过之成功在于应用。
A. 在于研究。B. 在于投资。C. 在于革新。这三项都是应用的部分前提。其中A和B文内提到，C项文内未涉及。
Here’s a familiar version of the boy-meets-girl situation. A young man has at last plucked up courage to invite a dazzling young lady out to dinner. She has accepted his invitation and he is overjoyed. He is determined to take her to the best restaurant in town, even if it means that he will have to live on memories and hopes during the month to come. When they get to the restaurant, he discovers that this ethereal creature is on a diet. She mustn’t eat this and she mustn’t that. Oh, but of course, she doesn’t want to spoil his enjoyment. Let him by all means eat as much fattening food as he wants: it’s the surest way to an early grave. They spend a truly memorable evening together and never see each other again.
What a miserable lot dieters are! You can always recognize them from the sour expression on their faces. They spend most of their time turning their noses up at food. They are forever consulting calorie charts; gazing at themselves in mirrors; and leaping on to weighing-machines in the bathroom. They spend a lifetime fighting a losing battle against spreading hips, protruding tummies and double chins. Some wage all-out war on FAT. Mere dieting is not enough. They exhaust themselves doing exercises, sweating in sauna baths, being pummeled and massaged by weird machines. The really wealthy diet-mongers pay vast sums for ‘health cures’. For two weeks they can enter a nature clinic and be starved to death for a hundred guineas a week. Don’t think it’s only the middle-aged who go in for these fads either. Many of these bright young things you see are suffering from chronic malnutrition: they are living on nothing but air, water and the goodwill of God.
Dieters undertake to starve themselves of their own free will; so why are they so miserable? Well, for one thing, they’re always hungry. You can’t be hungry and happy at the same time. All the horrible concoctions they eat instead of food leave them permanently dissatisfied. Wonderfood is a complete food, the advertisement says. ‘Just dissolve a teaspoonful in water…’. A complete food it may be, but not quite as complete as a juicy steak. And, of course, they’re always miserable because they feel so guilty. Hunger just proves too much for them and in the end they lash out and devour five huge guilt-inducing cream cakes at a sitting. And who can blame them? At least three times a day they are exposed to temptation. What utter torture it is always watching others tucking into piles of mouth-watering food while you munch a water biscuit and sip unsweetened lemon juice!
What’s all this self-inflicted torture for? Saintly people deprive themselves of food to attain a state of grace. Unsaintly people do so to attain a state of misery. It will be a great day when all the dieters in the world abandon their slimming courses; when they hold out their plates and demand second helpings!
1. The best title for this passage is
[A] On Fat.
[B] We Should All Grow Fat and Be Happy.
[C] Many Diseases Are Connected with Fat.
[D] Diet Deprives People of Normal Life.
2. Why do they never see each other again?
[A] Because it is a memorable evening.
[B] Because she lets him eat as much fattening food as he wants.
[C] Because she does not eat this and drink that.
[D] Because eating fattening food is the surest way to an early grave.
3. Which of the following ways is NOT mentioned for diet?
[A] Doing exercises.
[B] Not eating sugar.
[C] Not eating fat.
[D] Taking sauna baths.
4. What is the author’s attitude toward diet?
1. ethereal 优雅的，飘渺的
2. sour 愁眉不展的
3. tummy 肚子
4. protrude 突出的，突起的
5. wage 作（战），实行
6. all-out 全面的
7. sauna bath 桑拿浴
8. pummel = pommel 用拳头连打
9. massage 按摩
10. weird 不可思议的，离奇的
11. monger 商人，贩子
12. fad 一时流行的风尚
13. concoction 调制品，荤素混合菜，调和物
14. wonderfood 奇妙的食物
15. lash out 痛斥，鞭打
16. at a/one sitting 一口气
17. munch 用力嚼
18. inflict 予以打击，使遭受
19. slim 苗条的，不足取的，无价值的
1. B 我们都该长得胖乎乎，心情愉快。这是文章的目的，也是文章最佳标题。答案见最后一段：“这一切自我折磨为了什么？圣洁的人们不吃饭菜是为了身材优美，不圣洁的人们不吃饭菜得到的是痛苦。当世界上所有的节食者都抛弃这减轻体重显得苗条的课程时当他们伸出盘子，要求再来一份（第二份食物）时，这将是一个伟大的日子。”
A. 论脂肪。似乎有点儿接近文章的内容。但文章涉及到的各个方面并不是单讲脂肪食品或饮食问题。C. 许多疾病和脂肪有关。文内第一段提到这方面的问题。D. 节食剥夺了人们正常生活。文内提到，但不是文章的总目的和内容。
A. 因为这是一个值得纪念的夜晚。B. 她让他爱吃多少脂肪食物就吃多少。C.因为她不吃这个也不吃那个。这三项都是单独的事实或情况。
A.劝导的。 C.漠不关心。这两项不对。D. 敌意的。不合适。
The establishment of the Third Reich influenced events in American history by starting a chain of events which culminated in war between Germany and the United States. The compete destruction of democracy, the persecution of Jews, the war on religion, the cruelty and barbarism of the Nazis, and especially the plans of Germany and her allies, Italy and Japan, for world conquest caused great indignation in this country and brought on fear of another world war. While speaking out against Hitler’s atrocities, the American people generally favored isolationist policies and neutrality. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936 prohibited trade with any belligerents or loans to them. In 1937 the President was empowered to declare an arms embargo in wars between nations at his discretion.
American opinion began to change somewhat after President Roosevelt’s “quarantine the aggressor” speech at Chicago (1937) in which he severely criticized Hitler’s policies. Germany’s seizure of Austria and the Munich Pact for the partition of Czechoslovakia (1938) also aroused the American people. The conquest of Czechoslovakia in March, 1939 was another rude awakening to the menace of the Third Reich. In August,1939 came the shock of the Nazi-soviet Pact and in September the attack on Poland and the outbreak of European war. The United States attempted to maintain neutrality in spite of sympathy for the democracies arrayed against the Third Reich. The Neutrality Act of 1939 repealed the arms embargo and permitted “cash and carry” exports of arms to belligerent nations. A strong national defense program was begun. A draft act was passed (1940) to strengthen the military services. A Lend Act (1941) authorized the President to sell, exchange, or lend materials to any country deemed necessary by him for the defense of the United States. Help was given to Britain by exchanging certain overage destroyers for the right to establish American bases in British territory in the Western Hemisphere. In August, 1940 President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met and issued the Atlantic Charter which proclaimed the kind of a world which should be established after the war. In December, 1941, Japan launched the unprovoked attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor. Immediately thereafter, Germany declared war on the United States.
1. One item occurring before 1937 that the author does not mention in his list of actions that alienated the American public was
[A] the burning of the Reichstag.
[B] German plans for conquest.
[C] Nazi barbarism.
[D] the persecution of religious groups.
2. The Lend-Lease Act was designed to
[A] help the British.
[B] strengthen the national defense of the United States.
[C] promote the Atlantic Charter.
[D] avenge Pearl Harbor.
3. American Policy during the years 1935-1936 may be described as being
4. The Neutrality Act of 1939
[A] permitted the selling of arms to belligerent nations.
[B] antagonized Japan.
[C] permitted the British to trade only with the Allies.
[D] led to Lend-Lease Act.
5. We entered the war against Germany
[A] because Germany declared war.
[B] because Japan was an ally of Germany.
[C] after Germany had signed the Nazi-soviet Pact.
[D] after peaceful efforts had failed.
1. Reich 帝国，尤指第二次世界大战前及大战期间的德国
2. atrocity 凶残，残暴
3. belligerent 好战的，交战国的
4. discretion 判断力，自行裁决，谨慎
5. empower 赋予……权力
6. embargo 禁运，封港
7. quarantine 停船检疫，隔离，封锁，使孤立
8. partition 分割，瓜分
9. menace 威胁，危险
10. repeal 废除，取消
11. overage destroyer 旧式驱逐舰
12. unprovoked 无缘无故的，非因触犯而发生的
13. Neutrality Acts 中立法令
14. Munich Pact 慕尼黑公约
15. draft act 征兵法
16. Lend Lease Act 租借法
17. Atlantic Charter 大西洋公约
18. Pearl Harbor 珍珠港
B. 德国征服计划。C. 纳粹之残暴。D. 迫害宗教团体。在文中都提到。见第一段第二句“民主的全面摧毁、对犹太人的迫害、摧残宗教、纳粹的残忍和野蛮，特别是德国及其盟国意、日、征服世界的计划激起美国极大愤怒，也带来了对又一次世界大战的恐惧。”
2. B 加强美国国防。见第二段导数第五句“1941年的租借法规定：总统对他认为保卫美国所需要的国家有权卖给、交换或借给他们物资。”
A. 帮助英国，不对。C. 促进大西洋公约。大西洋公约是1941年8月，罗斯福和邱吉尔会面后的联合公告。D. 报复珍珠港。是1941年日本发起袭击的报复。
3. B 与世隔绝。这在第一段第三句“美国人民虽然反对希特勒的凶残等事，他们一般还是喜欢孤立（与世隔绝的）政策和保持中立。1933年和1936年的中立条约规定：禁止和交战国双方贸易和借贷。”
A. 观察的。C. 和平的。D. 不正确的。
4. A 允许把武器卖给交战国。答案在第二段第六句“1939年的中立条约取消了武器禁运，允许进行现钞交易出口武器给交战国。”
B. 和日本敌对。C. 允许英国只能和其盟国贸易。D. 导致租借条约。
5. A 因为德国宣战。这在第一段已有说明。尽管希特勒坏事做尽，美国还是倾向于中立政策。第二段罗斯福在芝加哥的演讲，态度稍有改变。严厉批评希特勒的政策，但仍然以中立为主。1941年日本袭击珍珠港，不久德国宣战，美国才不得不参战。
Antarctica has actually become a kind of space station – a unique observation post for detecting important changes in the world’s environment. Remote from major sources of pollution and the complex geological and ecological systems that prevail elsewhere, Antarctica makes possible scientific measurements that are often sharper and easier to interpret than those made in other parts of the world.
Growing numbers of scientists therefore see Antarctica as a distant-early-warning sensor, where potentially dangerous global trends may be spotted before they show up to the north. One promising field of investigation is glaciology. Scholars from the United States, Switzerland, and France are pursuing seven separate but related projects that reflect their concern for the health of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet – a concern they believe the world at large should share.
The Transantarctic Mountain, some of them more than 14,000 feet high, divide the continent into two very different regions. The part of the continent to the “east” of the mountains is a high plateau covered by an ice sheet nearly two miles thick. “West” of the mountain, the half of the continent south of the Americas is also covered by an ice sheet, but there the ice rests on rock that is mostly well below sea level. If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet disappeared, the western part of the continent would be reduced to a sparse cluster of island.
While ice and snow are obviously central to many environmental experiments, others focus on the mysterious “dry valley” of Antarctica, valleys that contain little ice or snow even in the depths of winter. Slashed through the mountains of southern Victoria Land, these valleys once held enormous glaciers that descended 9,000 feet from the polar plateau to the Ross Sea. Now the glaciers are gone, perhaps a casualty of the global warming trend during the 10,000 years since the ice age. Even the snow that falls in the dry valleys is blasted out by vicious winds that roars down from the polar plateau to the sea. Left bare are spectacular gorges, rippled fields of sand dunes, clusters of boulders sculptured into fantastic shapes by 100-mile-an-hour winds, and an aura of extraterrestrial desolation.
Despite the unearthly aspect of the dry valleys, some scientists believe they may carry a message of hope of the verdant parts of the earth. Some scientists believe that in some cases the dry valleys may soak up pollutants faster than pollutants enter them.
1. What is the best title for this passage?
[A] Antarctica and environmental Problems.
[B] Antarctica: Earth’s Early-Warning station.
[C] Antarctica: a Unique Observation Post.
[D] Antarctica: a Mysterious Place.
2. What would the result be if the West Antarctic Ice Sheet disappeared?
[A] The western part of the continent would be disappeared.
[B] The western part of the continent would be reduced.
[C] The western part of the continent would become scattered Islands.
[D] The western part of the continent would be reduced to a cluster of Islands.
3. Why are the Dry Valleys left bare?
[A] Vicious wind blasts the snow away.
[B] It rarely snows.
[C] Because of the global warming trend and fierce wind.
[D] Sand dunes.
4. Which of the following is true?
[A] The “Dry Valleys” have nothing left inside.
[B] The “Dry Valleys” never held glaciers.
[C] The “Dry Valleys” may carry a message of hope for the verdant.
[D] The “Dry Valleys” are useless to scientists.
1. distant-early-warning sensor 远距离早期报警传感器
2. plateau 高原，高地
3. slash 挥砍
4. blast 一阵疾风/狂风
5. vicious 邪恶的，凶魔般的
6. gorge 峡谷
7. ripple 起伏，使起微波
8. sand dune 沙丘
9. verdant 绿色
10. extraterrestrial 地球之外的
11. aura 气氛
1. Growing numbers of scientists therefore see Antarctica as a distant-early waning sensor, where potentially dangerous global trends may be spotted before they show up to the north.
【结构简析】see … as 把……看作。Where定从修饰Antarctic。
2. The part of the continent to the “east” of the mountain
3. an aura of extraterrestrial desolation
1. A 南极洲和环境问题。
B. 南极洲：地球最早的报警战。C.南极洲：独一无二的观察哨。D. 南极洲：神秘的地方。三项都是总内容众的组成部分。
2. D 大陆西部成为一群岛屿。第三段“横断南极的山脉，有的高达一万四千多英尺，把这大陆分成情况各异的两个地区。山脉以东的大陆部分是由差不多两英里厚的冰层覆盖的高原；山脉以西，即美洲以南的半个大陆也为冰层所覆盖。可是，这里冰层覆盖在大大低于海平面的岩石。如果西南极洲冰层消失，那这大陆西部将成为稀疏的岛群。”
A. 大陆西部将小时。B. 大陆西部缩小。 D. 大陆西部将成为分散的岛屿。
3. C 因为地球变暖和狂风劲吹。在第四段：“……这些干谷甚至在寒冬季节也很少有冰雪。它们插在南维多利亚陆地的山脉中，一度曾有从极地高原到罗斯海的深度为9000英尺的冰河。现在冰河已不存在，很可能是冰期之后一万年间地球变暖的结果。即使落入干谷的雪也被从极地高原咆哮入海的邪恶狂风吹散了。留下来的是裸露的壮观的峡谷，沙丘起伏的原野，被时速一百英里的大风雕刻成奇形怪状的大砾石，形成与世隔绝的荒凉景象。”
A. 邪恶的狂风吹走了雪。B. 它很少下雪。D.沙丘。这三项只是干谷现象的一部分。
4. C 他们可能为地球上绿色地区带来了希望的信息。答案是第五段第一句“尽管干谷具有神秘的一面，科学家却相信他们可能为地球上葱绿的地方带来了希望的信息。”
A.干谷内什么都没有留下。B. 干谷内从没有冰河。D. 按照科学家的看法，干谷毫无用处。
Imagining being asked to spend twelve or so years of your life in a society which consisted only of members of own sex. How would you react? Unless there was something definitely wrong with you, you wouldn’t be too happy about it, to say the least. It is all the more surprising therefore that so many parents in the world choose to impose such abnormal conditions on their children – conditions which they themselves wouldn’t put up with for one minute!
Any discussion of this topic is bound to question the aims of education. Stuffing children’s heads full of knowledge is far from being foremost among them. One of the chief aims of educations is to equip future citizens with all they require to take their place in adult society. Now adult society is made up of men and women, so how can a segregated school possibly offer the right sort of preparation for it? Anyone entering adult society after years of segregation can only be in for a shock.
A co-educational school offers children nothing less than a true version of society in miniature. Boys and girls are given the opportunity to get to know each other, to learn to live together from their earliest years. They are put in a position where they can compare themselves with each other in terms of academic ability, athletic achievement and many of the extra-curricular activities which are part of school life. What a practical advantage it is ( to give just a small example ) to be able to put on a school play in which the male parts will be taken by boys and the female parts by girls! What nonsense co-education makes of the argument that boys are cleverer than girl or vice-versa. When segregated, boys and girls are made to feel that they are a race apart. Rivalry between the sexes is fostered. In a coeducational school, everything falls into its proper place.
But perhaps the greatest contribution of co-education is the healthy attitude to life it encourages. Boys don’t grow up believing that women are mysterious creatures – airy goddesses, more like book-illustrations to a fairy-tale, than human beings. Girls don’t grow up imagining that men are romantic heroes. Years of living together at school dispel illusions of this kind. There are no goddesses with freckles, pigtails, piercing voices and inky fingers. There are no romantic heroes with knobbly knees, dirty fingernails and unkempt hair. The awkward stage of adolescence brings into sharp focus some of the physical and emotional problems involved in growing up. These can better be overcome in a co-educational environment. Segregated schools sometimes provide the right conditions for sexual deviation. This is hardly possible under a co-educational system. When the time comes for the pupils to leave school, they are fully prepared to enter society as well-adjusted adults. They have already had years of experience in coping with many of the problems that face men and women.
1. What is the best title for this passage?
[A] only co-education can be in harmony with society.
[B] people are in great need of co-education.
[C] any form of education other than co-education is simply unthinkable.
[D] co-education has many features.
2. what does co-education offer to children?
[A] A society.
[B] A true small model of society.
[C] A real life.
[D] True version of social condition.
3. According to the passage, what is one of the chief aims of education?
[A] It is for students to acquire knowledge.
[B] It is to equip future citizens with scientific technology.
[C] It is to equip future citizens with what is required in getting a position in society.
[D] It is for students to get academic achievements.
4. Why do boys and girls in co-education have no illusion about each other?
[A] They live together and know each other too well.
[B] Years of living together at school dismiss such illusion.
[C] co-education encourage them to have an healthy attitude toward life.
[D] They are familiar with each other’s problems.
1. to be in for = receive 接受
He is in for punishment. 他受到惩罚。
2. miniature 缩样，雏形，微型画
3. freckle 雀斑
4. pigtail 鞭子
5. knobbly = knobby 多节的
6. unkempt 乱七八糟，蓬乱的
7. sharp focus = clear view
bring into focus 使集中在焦点上，对光
bring into sharp focus 这里的意义是：一目了然，明显突出
8. deviation 越轨，偏离，入歧途
1. all the more
2. a co-educational school offers children nothing less than a true version of society in miniature.
3. The awkward stage of adolescence brings into sharp focus some of the physical and emotional problems involved in growing up.
1. C 除了男女合校，其他形式的教育简直难以想象。答案见第一段“设想请你在一个只有你一样性别的人存在的社会生活12年光景，你会如何反应呢？除非你本人确实有毛病，否则，你至少不会太高兴。因此，世界上有那么多的父母愿意把这种不正常的环境（他们自己一分钟都受不了的环境）强加给他们的孩子们，这太令人惊讶！”第二段讲“教育的目的之一就是为未来的公民在成人社会中找一席之地，准备好需要的一切。而社会由男女组成，那分校又怎能准备？”后两段讲合校之优点，分校之缺点，具体对比突出主题。这都说明C 最合适。
A. 只有合校才能和社会相协调。D. 合校有许多特点。这两项文章内容涉及到，但作为最佳标题则不确切。B. 人们非常需要合校。文内没有直接谈到。
2. B 一个真实社会的缩影。这在第三段第一句“男女合校确实能给孩子们提供一个社会真实的缩影。”下面的内容都是围绕这个主题而写的具体情况。如：生活在一起，彼此了解，对比等。
A. 社会。C. 一种真实的生活。D. 真实的社会情况。都没有B项那样确切。
3. C 为未来公民在社会上拥有一席之地，准备好所需要的一切。这在第二段“这个话题的讨论必然会引出教育目的的问题。把各种知识塞进孩子头脑远不是教育主要的目的，教育的主要目的之一是为未来公民在成人社会求得一席之地，准备好所需一切。”
A. 学生学到只是。B. 以科技武装未来公民。C.为学生缺德学术成就。都只是知识学习的一个部分。
4. B 几年学校共同生活打消了幻想。答案在第四段中,“在学校中，几年生活在一起消除这一类的幻想。没有什么脸上有雀斑，梳着鞭子，涂着指甲，尖的噪音的女神，也没有膝部有疙瘩，指甲脏兮兮，头发乱蓬蓬的浪漫英雄。棘手的青春期明显呈现出来的成长过程中身体上和感情上的问题，在男女合校环境中得到很好的解决。”
A. 他们生活在一起，彼此太了解。此答案太过，不是太了解而不产生幻想，而是了解情况；真人就在眼前，人就实际了，消除了幻想。C. 合校鼓励他们对生活有一种健康积极的态度。这是合校的大方向，不是消除幻想的根本原因。D. 他们熟悉彼此的问题。不全是消除幻想之因，而是处理问题的前奏。这在最后一段最后两句话有说明“当学生离校的时刻来到时，他们已是很有适应性的成人，为进入社会做好了充分准备。他们已有几年处理面临男女的许多问题的经验。”
Although the top men in smuggling business must work together, most of a syndicate’s small fry, especially the mules, know only their immediate contacts. If caught there is little they can give away. A mule probably will not even know the name of the person who gives him his instructions, nor how to get in touch with him. Usually he even does not know the person to whom he has to make delivery. He will be told just to sit tight in a certain hotel or bar until someone contacts him. In this way if he is blown, coming through airport customs he cannot unwittingly lead agents to the next link in the chain. All the persons at the receiving end do is to hang around the airport among the waiting crowd, and see that the mule comes through safely. If he does not, he is dimply written off as a loss. To make identification of mules easier, several syndicates have devised their own “club ties” so that a mule wearing one can immediately be picked out.
Mules often receive careful training before embarking on their first journey. One Beirut organization, for example, uses a room with three airline seats in it. There the trainee mules sit for hours on end wearing weighted smuggling vests beneath their clothes, so that they become accustomed to standing up after a long flight in a natural way, and without revealing what they are carrying. An outfit in Brussels maintained a comfortable apartment where the mules could relax and get a firm grip on themselves on the night before their first journey; they were helped to dress before setting out for the airport in the morning. More often than not a courier will not know precisely where he is going or what flight number is until he is actually handed his tickets at the airport. This prevents the careless boast in some bar or to a girl friend the night before.
Mules occasionally run off with the goods to keep the profit themselves. As insurance against this, a syndicate often sends a high-up on the same plane to keep a wary eye on couriers, particularly new ones. Even then things can go badly wrong. One international currency smuggler who was having trouble getting money out of Britain was offered help by a group of men who said they were in a position to “fix thing” – for a fee of course. Foolishly, the smuggler agreed to accept their help. When he got to London’s Heathrow Airport, he handed over to one of the men a black suitcase containing nearly $90,000 in cash, destined for Frankfurt. Just to keep an eye on things, the smuggler went along on the same plane. When they landed at Frankfurt he was handed back his suitcase. He beat a straight path to the men’s toilet, opened the case, and found only old clothes. The courier had switched suitcase en route, but the smuggler could hardly run to the police and complain that “the man who was smuggling money out of England for me has stolen it.”
1. What is a “mule”?
[A] A person who sends smuggling goods for a syndicate is called mule.
[B] A person in charge of smuggling goods is called mule.
[C] A person who makes delivery for a syndicate is called mule.
[D] A person who receives instructions from a smuggler is called mule.
2. The sentence “if he is blown” in line (6) is closest in meaning to
[A] if he is arrested.
[B] if he is recognized, but not necessarily arrested.
[C] if he is recognized and arrested.
[D] if he runs away.
3. Why does the author give an example in the last paragraph?
[A] To show how a smuggler is caught.
[B] To show a smuggler is afraid of the police.
[C] To show to keep a wary eye on couriers is useless.
[D] To show mules may keep the profit for themselves.
4. how does a mule work?
1. fry 小鱼群，小生物群。这里的small fry是指辛迪加之子公司，小走私集团或走私者
2. sit tight 稳坐不动，坚持下去，这里指一直坐等着，等到有人来和他联系。
3. blown 欠账的，被炸毁的。这里指走私分子“出事”
4. write off 销账，被勾销的项目。这里指把出事的骡子从名单上勾掉。
5. written off as a loss 作为损失销账。
6. embark (on) 开始搞，从事，上船。
7. grip 紧握
8. high up 高处，这里指高一级走私人
9. fix thing 这里指“摆平事情”，解决问题
10. beat 踏上
11. switch 转变，调换
1. In this way if he is blown, coming through airport customs he cannot unwittingly lead agents to the next link in the chain.
2. There the trainee mules sit for hours on end wearing weighted smuggling vests beneath their clothes, so that they become accustomed to standing up after a long flight in a natural way, and without revealing what they are carrying.
【结构简析】主从句。主句中分词断语wearing修饰trainee。从句中and连接两组介词短语，后有一宾语从句what they are carrying。这实际上是with(without) +v-ing+object基本句型。
3. An outfit in Brussels maintained a comfortable apartment where the mules could relax and get a firm grip on themselves on the night before their first journey; they were helped to dress before setting out for the airport in the morning.
1. C mule，骡子是为走私集团交货人的称呼，绰号。
2. B blown原义为：欠账了的，被炸毁的，坏了等。这里指：走私分子在过海关，机场检查处出事，不一定被逮捕。
3. D 说明走私分子会把利益归己。最后一段第一句“有时，走私分子带着货物逃跑，把利益归己”。走私集团为防范此事，常常派遣高级人物监视走私人，特别是新走私者，也于事无补。这段的具体例子：“走私者和委托人同机飞行，到法兰克福机场，9万美金也是不翼而飞，走私者已经捞到手。”就是说明走私者可以为自己留下财路。
President Arling has put his long awaited economic restructuring program before the Congress. It provides a coordinated program of investment credits, research grants, education reforms, and tax changes designed to make American industry more competitive. This is necessary to reverse the economic slide into unemployment, lack of growth, and trade deficits that have plagued the economy for the past six years.
The most liberal wing of the President’s party has called for stronger and more direct action. They want an incomes policy to check inflation while federal financing helps rebuild industry behind a wall of protective tariffs.
The Republicans, however, decry even the modest, graduated tax increases in the President’s program. They want tax cuts and more open market. They say if federal money has to be injected into the economy, let it through defence spending.
Both these alternatives ignore the unique nature of the economic problem before us. It is not simply a matter of markets or financing. The new technology allows vastly increased production for those able to master it. But it also threatens those who fail to adopt it with permanent second-class citizenship in the world economy. If an industry cannot lever itself up to the leading stage of technological advances, then it will not be able to compete effectively. If it cannot do this, no amount of government protectionism or access to foreign markets can keep it profitable for long. Without the profits and experience of technological excellence to reinvest, that industry can only fall still further behind its foreign competitors.
So the crux is the technology and that is where the President’s program focused. The danger is not that a plan will not be passed, it is that the ideologues of right and left will distort the bill with amendments that will blur its focus on technology. The economic restructuring plan should be passed intact. If we fail to restructure our economy now, we may not get a second chance.
1. The focus of the President’s program is on
2. What is the requirement of the most liberal wing of the Democratic-party?
[A] They want a more direct action.
[B] They want an incomes policy to check inflation.
[C] They want to rebuild industry.
[D] They want a wall of protective tariffs.
3. What is the editor’s attitude?
4. The danger to the plan lies in
[A] the two parties’ objection.
[B] different idea of the two parties about the plan.
[C] its passage.
5. The passage is
[A] a review.
[B] a preface.
[C] a advertisement.
[D] an editorial.
1. reverse 逆转
2. slide 滑坡
3. plague 瘟疫；折磨，困扰
4. tariff 关税
5. decry 谴责，诋毁
6. lever 杠杆；用杠杆撬动
7. crux 症结
8. ideologue 空想家，思想家
9. intact 原封不动的，完整无损的
10. investment credit 投资信贷
11. research grant 研究基金
1. This is necessary to reverse the economic slide into unemployment, lack of growth, and trade deficits that have plagued the economy for the past six years.
1. C 工艺技术。最后一段第一句“问题的症结就在于工艺技术，这就是总统计划的要点所在。”第四段：“对掌握新技术的人来说，新技术使他们大大增产，而新技术对不能掌握它的人来说，在世界经济中他们面临沦为永久性的二等公民的危险。如果不能做到这一点，那么任何政府保护主义，进入国际市场都不能有效地竞争。如果不能有技术优势的利润和经验再投资，工业只能进一步落后于国外竞争对手。”这些都说明总统计划的重点再工艺技术。
2. A 更直接行动。第二段“总统的党内几段自由翼要求更强硬、更直接行动。他们要求用收入（税收）政策来制止通货膨胀；联邦财政在关税保护下，帮助重建工业。”
5. D 社论。
If you smoke and you still don’t believe that there’s a definite link between smoking and bronchial troubles, heart disease and lung cancer, then you are certainly deceiving yourself. No one will accuse you of hypocrisy. Let us just say that you are suffering from a bad case of wishful thinking. This needn’t make you too uncomfortable because you are in good company. Whenever the subject of smoking and health is raised, the governments of most countries hear no evil, see no evil and smell no evil. Admittedly, a few governments have taken timid measures. In Britain for instance, cigarette advertising has been banned on television. The conscience of the nation is appeased, while the population continues to puff its way to smoky, cancerous death.
You don’t have to look very far to find out why the official reactions to medical findings have been so lukewarm. The answer is simply money. Tobacco is a wonderful commodity to tax. It’s almost like a tax on our daily bread. In tax revenue alone, the government of Britain collects enough from smokers to pay for its entire educational facilities. So while the authorities point out ever so discreetly that smoking may, conceivable, be harmful, it doesn’t do to shout too loudly about it.
This is surely the most short-sighted policy you could imagine. While money is eagerly collected in vast sums with one hand, it is paid out in increasingly vaster sums with the other. Enormous amounts are spent on cancer research and on efforts to cure people suffering from the disease. Countless valuable lives are lost. In the long run, there is no doubt that everybody would be much better-off if smoking were banned altogether.
Of course, we are not ready for such a drastic action. But if the governments of the world were honestly concerned about the welfare of their peoples, you’d think they’d conduct aggressive anti-smoking campaigns. Far from it! The tobacco industry is allowed to spend staggering sums on advertising. Its advertising is as insidious as it is dishonest. We are never shown pictures of real smokers coughing up their lungs early in the morning. That would never do. The advertisement always depict0 virile, clean-shaven young men. They suggest it is manly to smoke, even positively healthy! Smoking is associated with the great open-air life, with beautiful girls, true love and togetherness. What utter nonsense!
For a start, governments could begin by banning all cigarette and tobacco advertising and should then conduct anti-smoking advertising campaigns of their own. Smoking should be banned in all public places like theatres, cinemas and restaurants. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially of the dire consequences of taking up the habit. A horrific warning – say, a picture of a death’s head – should be included in every packet of cigarettes that is sold. As individuals, we are certainly weak, but if governments acted honestly and courageously, they could protect us from ourselves.
1. Why do a few governments take timid measures toward smoking?
[A] because they are afraid of people.
[B] Because diseases cost a lot.
[C] Because they are afraid of the cutting down of their revenue.
[D] Because they are afraid of manufacturers.
2. The tone of this passage is
3. What does the sentence “because you are in good company” mean?
[A] you are backed by the government.
[B] You are not alone.
[C] You have good colleagues.
[D] Governments are blind to evils of smoking too.
4. What is the best title of this passage?
[A] World Governments should conduct serious campaigns against smoking.
[B] World governments take timid measures against smoking.
[C] smoking is the most important source of income to many countries.
[D] tobacco industry spends a large sum of money on medical research.
1. a wishful thinking 根据愿望的想法，不顾事实的想法
2. puff 喷
puff its way to 一路吞云吐雾走向（指抽烟抽到死）
3. lukewarm 冷淡/漠然
4. insidious 阴险的，狡猾的
5. virile 年富力强的
1. C 因为他们害怕收入减少。答案见第二段。“你不用看得很远就能发现为什么官方对医学成果的反应如此冷淡，答案就是钱。烟草是征税的最奇妙的商品，几乎就像日用面包的税收。光烟草税收一项，英国政府就从抽烟人身上征到足以支付整个教育措施的费用。所以在当局那么谨慎地指出吸烟有害时，可以想象，喊叫得太响时不行的。”
2. B 讽刺语气。特别表现在第一段、第四段。
3. D 政府对吸烟的恶果也是视而不见。
4. A 世界各国政府应该开展眼里的禁烟运动。因为前面四段都是现象：⑴政策软弱。如英国政府只在电视上禁止烟草广告以高位人们的良知。另一方面人民继续一路吞云吐雾走到癌症死亡。⑵讲烟草的税收高，所以不严禁。⑶这项政策的后果是疾病花费大于烟草税收。⑷烟草广告泛滥毒害人。唯一解救的办法就是禁烟。最后一段是结论，也是画龙点睛的主题和标题。“作为起步，政府可以从禁止烟草广告开始，然后应开展抵制吸烟的广告运动。一切公共场合，如戏院、电影院、返点等应禁止吸烟。应竭尽全力告诫青年，尤其是告诫他们染上恶习的严重后果。在零卖的每包烟盒上应有一令人胆战心惊的警告：例如，一幅骷髅头画像。作为个人，我们力量薄弱，可是如果政府真诚地鼓舞人心的行动起来，他们可以保护我们。”
Yes, but what did we use to do before there was television? How often we hear statements like this! Television hasn’t been with us all that long, but we are already beginning to forget what the world was like without it. Before we admitted the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never fond it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music and broadcast talks occasionally. All that belongs to the past. Now all our free time is regulated by the goggle box. We rush home or gulp down our meals to be in time for this or that programme. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely evening meal, exchanging the news of the day. A sandwich and a glass of beer will do – anything, providing it doesn’t interfere with the programme. The monster demands and obtains absolute silence and attention. If any member of the family dares to open his mouth during a programme, he is quickly silenced.
Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is lost. The telly is a universal pacifier. It is now standard practice for mother to keep the children quiet by putting them in the living-room and turning on the set. It doesn’t matter that the children will watch rubbishy commercials or spectacles of sadism and violence – so long as they are quiet.
There is a limit to the amount of creative talent available in the world. Every day, television consumes vast quantities of creative work. That is why most of the programmes are so bad: it is impossible to keep pace with the demand and maintain high standards as well. When millions watch the same programmes, the whole world becomes a village, and society is reduced to the conditions which obtain in preliterate communities. We become utterly dependent on the two most primitive media of communication: pictures and the spoken word.
Television encourages passive enjoyment. We become content with second-hand experiences. It is so easy to sit in our armchairs watching others working. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get so lazy, we choose to spend a fine day in semi-darkness, glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself. Television may be s splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only become aware how totally irrelevant television is to real living when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilization. In quiet, natural surroundings, we quickly discover how little we miss the hypnotic tyranny of King Telly.
1. What is the biggest harm of TV?
[A] It deprives people of communication with the real world.
[B] People become lazy.
[C] People become dependent on second-hand experience.
[D] TV consumes a large part of one’s life.
2. In what way can people forget TV?
[A] Far away from civilization.
[B] To a mountain.
[C] By the sea.
[D] In quiet natural surroundings.
3. What does a mother usually do to keep her children quiet?
[A] Let them watch the set.
[B] Put them in the living room.
[C] Let them watch the rubbish.
[D] Let them alone.
4. What does the first sentence in the first paragraph mean?
[A] We found it difficult to occupy our spare time.
[B] We become addicted to TV.
[C] What we used to do is different from now.
[D] We used to enjoy civilized pleasures.
1. goggle 转动眼珠，瞪眼
goggle box （英俚）电视机
2. gulp 狼吞虎咽
3. telly 电视机
4. pacifier 平息者，抚慰者。这里指平静人，使人不吱声的东西。
5. rubbishy 垃圾的，无价值的
6. sadism 施淫虐
7. glue 胶（水）；粘牢
glue to the sets 和电视机粘在一起，指成了电视迷
8. hypnotic 催眠的
1. There is a limit to the amount of creative talent available in the world.
1. A 它剥夺了人们和真实世界的联系。文章多次提到现在我们不能探亲访友，一家人互不交流，而一旦离开电视就进入了真是世界。
B. 人变懒。C. 人们变得依赖二手经验。D. 电视浪费了人生的大量时间。这三项只是危害重具体一个组成部分。
2. D 在安宁的大自然的怀抱中。答案在最后一段最后一句“在安详宁静的大自然环境中，我们很快发现我们对催眠的电视暴君连想都不怎么想！”
3. A 叫他们看电视。这在第二段第三句起“电视是一个万能安静器。母亲为使孩子们安静，就把他们放在起居室内，打开电视看。这是现在最权威的一招。至于孩子们看的使垃圾般的商业广告，还是施淫虐或暴力片都无关紧要，只要他们安静不闹。”
4. B 我们都成了电视迷。第一句“是的，可是没有电视之前，我们常干些什么？”这说明人们已经习惯于电视，以来电视，到了没有电视怎么办的境地。不知道没有电视前的情况。第二段“整个几代人越来越迷上了电视，饭不吃，家务不干，不睡觉。”可以说整篇文章都描写了人们对电视迷恋，依赖。第一句话是引言。所以B对。
The Norwegian Government is doing its best to keep the oil industry under control. A new law limits exploration to an area south of the southern end of the long coastline; production limits have been laid down (though these have already been raised); and oil companies have not been allowed to employ more than a limited number of foreign workers. But the oil industry has a way of getting over such problems, and few people believe that the Government will be able to hold things back for long. As on Norwegian politician said last week: “We will soon be changed beyond all recognition.”
Ever since the war, the Government has been carrying out a programme of development in the area north of the Arctic Circle. During the past few years this programme has had a great deal of success: Tromso has been built up into a local capital with a university, a large hospital and a healthy industry. But the oil industry has already started to draw people south, and within a few years the whole northern policy could be in ruins.
The effects of the oil industry would not be limited to the north, however. With nearly 100 percent employment, everyone can see a situation developing in which the service industries and the tourist industry will lose more of their workers to the oil industry. Some smaller industries might even disappear altogether when it becomes cheaper to buy goods from abroad.
The real argument over oil is its threat to the Norwegian way of life. Farmers and fishermen do not make up most of the population, but they are an important part of it, because Norwegians see in them many of the qualities that they regard with pride as essentially Norwegian. And it is the farmers and the fishermen who are most critical of the oil industry because of the damage that it might cause to the countryside and to the sea.
1. The Norwegian Government would prefer the oil industry to
[A] provide more jobs for foreign workers.
[B] slow down the rate of its development.
[C] sell the oil it is producing abroad.
[D] develop more quickly than at present.
2. The Norwegian Government has tried to
[A] encourage the oil companies to discover new oil sources.
[B] prevent oil companies employing people from northern Norway.
[C] help the oil companies solve many of their problems.
[D] keep the oil industry to something near its present size.
3. According to the passage, the oil industry might lead northern Norway to
[A] the development of industry.
[B] a growth in population.
[C] the failure of the development programme.
[D] the development of new towns.
4. In the south, one effect to the development of the oil industry might be
[A] a large reduction on unemployment.
[B] a growth in the tourist industry.
[C] a reduction in the number of existing industries.
[D] the development of a number of service industries.
5. Norwegian farmers and fishermen have an important influence because
[A] they form such a large part of Norwegian ideal.
[B] their lives and values represent the Norwegian ideal.
[C] their work is so useful to the rest of Norwegian society.
[D] they regard oil as a threat to the Norwegian way of life.
1. Norwegian 挪威的；挪威人
2. coastline 海岸线
3. recognition 承认；认识；赞赏
4. countryside 乡下；乡民
1. A new law limits exploration to an area south of the southern end of the long coastline; production limits have been laid down (though these have already been raised); and oil companies have not been allowed to employ more than a limited number of foreign workers.
2. With nearly 100 percent employment, everyone can see a situation developing in which the service industries and the tourist industry will lose more of their workers to the oil industry.
3. Farmers and fishermen do not make up most of the population, but they are an important part of it, because Norwegians see in them many of the qualities that they regard with pride as essentially Norwegian.
1. B 减慢发展速率。文章开始就阐明挪威政府正竭尽全力把石油工业控制起来，制定新法律来限制勘探开采，限制产量，限制雇佣外国工人人数。
2. D 使石油工业保持在接近现在的规模。
3. C 发展规划的失败。这在第二段最后一句：“可是石油工业已经开始把人们吸引到南方去，所以不出几年，整个北方政策可能成泡影。”
4. C 现存工业数的减少。第三段开始“可是石油工业的影响并不仅仅限于北方。近百分之一百的就业率，使每个人都见到发展的势头，服务业和旅游业的好多工人转向石油工业。某些较小的工业，在从国外购进货物更便宜的情况下，很可能会全部消失。”这说明工业数减少。
5. B 他们的生活和价值代表了挪威人的理想。
In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even questioned. There are countries where the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and pillaging. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence – as if it were a legitimate solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our instincts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the recorded history of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that violence never solves a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed, the suffering mean nothing. No solution ever comes to light the morning after when we dismally contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us.
The truly reasonable men who know where the solutions lie are finding it harder and herder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted by their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. If half the energy that goes into violent acts were put to good use, if our efforts were directed at cleaning up the slums and ghettos, at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we would have gone a long way to arriving at a solution. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake. In a well-directed effort, it would not be impossible to fulfill the ideals of a stable social programme. The benefits that can be derived from constructive solutions are everywhere apparent in the world around us. Genuine and lasting solutions are always possible, providing we work within the framework of the law.
Before we can even begin to contemplate peaceful co-existence between the races, we must appreciate each other’s problems. And to do this, we must learn about them: it is a simple exercise in communication, in exchanging information. ‘Talk, talk, talk,’ the advocates of violence say, ‘all you ever do is talk, and we are none the wiser.’ It’s rather like the story of the famous barrister who painstakingly explained his case to the judge. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser. ‘Possible, my lord,’ the barrister replied, ‘none the wiser, but surely far better informed.’ Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom: the knowledge that violence creates the evils it pretends to solve.
1. What is the best title for this passage?
[A] Advocating Violence.
[B] Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice.
[C] Important People on Both Sides See Violence As a Legitimate Solution.
[D] The Instincts of Human Race Are Thirsty for Violence.
2. Recorded history has taught us
[A] violence never solves anything.
[C] the bloodshed means nothing.
3. It can be inferred that truly reasonable men
[A] can’t get a hearing.
[B] are looked down upon.
[C] are persecuted.
[D] have difficulty in advocating law enforcement.
4. “He was none the wiser” means
[A] he was not at all wise in listening.
[B] he was not at all wiser than nothing before.
[C] he gains nothing after listening.
[D] he makes no sense of the argument.
5. According the author the best way to solve race prejudice is
[A] law enforcement.
[D] mopping up the violent mess.
1. acute 严重的，剧烈的，敏锐的
2. loot v.抢劫，掠夺；n.赃物
3. pillage v.抢劫，掠夺
4. crunch v.吱嘎吱嘎咬或嚼某物；n.碎裂声
when it comes to the crunch = if/when the decisive moment comes. 当关键时刻来到时。
5. war-paint 出战前涂于身上的颜料。（美印第安战士用）
6. come to light = become known 显露，为人所知
7. sap 剥削，使伤元气，破坏
I was sapped by months of hospital treatment. 我住院治疗几个月，大伤元气。
8. mop up 擦去，对付，处理
9. wake 船迹，航迹
in the wake of sth. = come after 随某事之后到来。
1. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all.
【结构简析】when it comes to the crunch = when / if the decisive moment comes.当关键时刻来到时。
2. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake.
【结构简析】in the wake of 在…之后。
3. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser.
【结构简析】none + the + 比较级。固定用法，义：not at all 一点儿也不。EX: After the treatment, he is none the better.治疗后，他并没有因此见好，（一点儿也不见好）。
4. Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom.
1. B 暴力难以消除种族偏见。文章一开始就提出有些国家种族偏见严重，而暴力却是公认的一种解决方法。白人采用暴力镇压，黑人以防火、掠抢为反抗。而双方的大人物平静地论及暴力，似乎这是一种合法的解决方案。作者就此指出人类的进步只在于表面――衣饰等，人类的本能没有改变。整个有记录历史的文件没有教会人类任何东西。这是真正令人可怕的事件。
4. C听后无所得。None the wiser一点也不比以前聪明（这是按字面翻译）。实际就是C项。
The tourist trade is booming. With all this coming and going, you’d expect greater understanding to develop between the nations of the world. Not a bit of it! Superb systems of communication by air, sea and land make it possible for us to visit each other’s countries at a moderate cost. What was once the ‘grand tour’, reserved for only the very rich, is now within everybody’s grasp. The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at. Modern travelers enjoy a level of comfort which the lords and ladies on grand tours in the old days couldn’t have dreamed of. But what’s the sense of this mass exchange of populations if the nations of the world remain basically ignorant of each other?
Many tourist organizations are directly responsible for this state of affairs. They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population. The modern tourist leads a cosseted, sheltered life. He lives at international hotels, where he eats his international food and sips his international drink while he gazes at the natives from a distance. Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored. The tourist is allowed to see only what the organizers want him to see and no more. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own; and anyway, language is always a barrier, so he is only too happy to be protected in this way. At its very worst, this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization. The summer quarters of the inhabitants of the cite universitaire: are temporarily reestablished on the island of Corfu. Blackpool is recreated at Torremolinos where the traveler goes not to eat paella, but fish and chips.
The sad thing about this situation is that it leads to the persistence of national stereotypes. We don’t see the people of other nations as they really are, but as we have been brought up to believe they are. You can test this for yourself. Take five nationalities, say, French, German, English, American and Italian. Now in your mind, match them with these five adjectives: musical, amorous, cold, pedantic, native. Far from providing us with any insight into the national characteristics of the peoples just mentioned, these adjectives actually act as barriers. So when you set out on your travels, the only characteristics you notice are those which confirm your preconceptions. You come away with the highly unoriginal and inaccurate impression that, say, ‘Anglo-Saxons are hypocrites’ of that ‘Latin peoples shout a lot’. You only have to make a few foreign friends to understand how absurd and harmful national stereotypes are. But how can you make foreign friends when the tourist trade does its best to prevent you?
Carried to an extreme, stereotypes can be positively dangerous. Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic fact—how trite it sounds! – that all people are human. We are all similar to each other and at the same time all unique.
1. The best title for this passage is
[A] tourism contributes nothing to increasing understanding between nations.
[B] tourism is tiresome.
[C] conducted tour is dull.
[D] tourism really does something to one’s country.
2. What is the author’s attitude toward tourism?
3. Which word in the following is the best to summarize Latin people shout a lot?
4. The purpose of the author’s criticism is to point out
[A] conducted tour is disappointing.
[B] the way of touring should be changed.
[C] when traveling, you notice characteristics which confirm preconception.
[D] national stereotypes should be changed.
5. What is ‘grand tour’ now?
[A] moderate cost.
[B] local sight-seeing is investigated by the tourist organization.
[C] people enjoy the first-rate comforts.
[D] everybody can enjoy the ‘grand tour’.
1. superb 卓越的，杰出的，第一流的
2. moderate 中庸的，中等的，适度的
3. grand tour 大旅行，指旧时英国富家子弟教育中，到欧洲大陆观光的旅行，为学业必经阶段。
4. package tour 由旅行社代办而费用与路线、日程固定的假日旅游。也可用package holiday。
5. chartered flight 包机航班
6. set out to do sth. = begin a job with a particular aim 开始做某事，决心/打算做……
7. cosset 宠爱，溺爱，纵容
8. conducted tour = guided tour 有人指导/引到下的参观，有导游的旅游
9. censor 检查
10. wander off 离开原处/正道，离群，漫步，漫游
11. quarters 住处，营
12. paella 西班牙什锦饭
13. chip 炸马铃薯条（土豆条）
14. amorous 多情的，色情的
15. pedantic 学究式的，卖弄学问的
16. generalization 归纳，概括
17. stir up 惹起，煽动，挑起
18. trite 陈腐的，老一套的
1. What was once the ‘grand tour’, reserved for only the very rich, is now within everybody’s grasp.
【结构简析】within sb.’s grasp.某人理解/了解，为某人所能抓到的。
2. The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at.
3. They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population.
4. The modern tourist heads a cosseted sheltered life.
5. Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored.
6. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own; and anyway, language is always barrier, so he is only too happy to be protected in this way.
【结构简析】only too + 形容词/分词 = very非常。
7. At its very worst, this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization.
【结构简析】at one’s worst 在情况最坏的时候。
8. Carried to an extreme, stereotypes can be positively dangerous.
【结构简析】carried to an extreme (to an excess )如果做得过分。
9. Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic fact.
1. A 旅游对增进民族了解毫无建树。第二段开始点出，许多旅游组织直接负责旅游事宜，他们有意识不让旅游者接触当地居民，让他们过着一种关怀备至又与世隔绝的生活。住的是国际饭店，吃的是国际食品，喝的是国际饮料，在原处观看当地居民。严格有序的计划使旅游者难以自己一人闲逛，语言的障碍，又使他们乐意接受保护。第三段涉及坚持民族模式化――老一套的想法，所以一开始旅游，你见到的民族特性就只是证实了你自己设想的基本事实――所有人民都是人类。只有交朋友才能知道民族模式是多么荒谬、有害，可是旅行社竭力制止，你又怎么能交上外国朋友呢？这一切说明A项对。
2. C 批评。
3. B 吵吵闹闹的。
4. B 旅游的方式应改变。整篇文章（除第一段外）都环绕旅游方式不理想来进行批评。第二段集中在导游观光使旅游者难以和当地人民接触。第三段，见到的只是证实了旅游者本人事先形成的思想/先入之见，旅游根本达不到了解对方的目的。第四段讲了民族固定模式（先入之见的模式）的可怕后果。要使人懂得所有的人们都是人类，彼此相似，又各具特点，就得改变旅游的方式。
5. D 人人都能享受大旅游。大旅行是专指英国富家子弟上学中的一门课程－到欧洲大陆观光。不是人人都能享受。这里用grand tour表示人人都能享受类似grand tour的一切，甚至超过，如第一段指出：现代旅游者享受的舒适设施，达到了大旅行中老爷、小姐们做梦都没有想到的水平。海陆空高级交流联络通讯系统，使人们有可能钱花得不多就能访问、观光别的国家。所以说，曾是有钱人专享的大旅行，普通人也能领略。“grand tour”有引号，表明作为比喻。
Pop stars today enjoy a style of living which was once the prerogative only of Royalty. Wherever they go, people turn out in their thousands to greet them. The crowds go wild trying to catch a brief glimpse of their smiling, colorfully dressed idols. The stars are transported in their chauffeur driven Rolls-Royces, private helicopters or executive aeroplanes. They are surrounded by a permanent entourage of managers, press agents and bodyguards. Photographs of them appear regularly in the press and all their comings and goings are reported, for, like Royalty, pop stars are news. If they enjoy many of the privileges of Royalty, they certainly share many of the inconveniences as well. It is dangerous for them to make unscheduled appearances in public. They must be constantly shielded from the adoring crowds which idolize them. They are no longer private individuals, but public property. The financial rewards they receive for this sacrifice cannot be calculated, for their rates of pay are astronomical.
And why not? Society has always rewarded its top entertainers lavishly. The great days of Hollywood have become legendary: famous stars enjoyed fame, wealth and adulation on an unprecedented scale. By today’s standards, the excesses of Hollywood do not seem quite so spectacular. A single gramophone record nowadays may earn much more in royalties than the films of the past ever did. The competition for the title ‘Top of the Pops’ is fierce, but the rewards are truly colossal.
It is only right that the stars should be paid in this way. Don’t the top men in industry earn enormous salaries for the services they perform to their companies and their countries? Pop stars earn vast sums in foreign currency – often more than large industrial concerns – and the taxman can only be grateful for their massive annual contributions to the exchequer. So who would begrudge them their rewards?
It’s all very well for people in humdrum jobs to moan about the successes and rewards of others. People who make envious remarks should remember that the most famous stars represent only the tip of the iceberg. For every famous star, there are hundreds of others struggling to earn a living. A man working in a steady job and looking forward to a pension at the end of it has no right to expect very high rewards. He has chosen security and peace of mind, so there will always be a limit to what he can earn. But a man who attempts to become a star is taking enormous risks. He knows at the outset that only a handful of competitors ever get to the very top. He knows that years of concentrated effort may be rewarded with complete failure. But he knows, too, that the rewards for success are very high indeed: they are the recompense for the huge risks involved and if he achieves them, he has certainly earned them. That’s the essence of private enterprise.
1. The sentence Pop stars’ style of living was once the prerogative only of Royalty means
[A] their life was as luxurious as that of royalty.
[B] They enjoy what once only belonged to the royalty.
[C] They are rather rich.
[D] Their way of living was the same as that of the royalty.
2. What is the author’s attitude toward top stars’ high income?
3. It can be inferred from the passage
[A] there exists fierce competition in climbing to the top.
[B] People are blind in idolizing stars.
[C] Successful Pop stars give great entertainment.
[D] The tax they have paid are great.
4. What can we learn from the passage?
[A] Successful man should get high-income repayment.
[B] Pop stars made great contribution to a country.
[C] Pop stars can enjoy the life of royalty.
[D] Successful men represent the tip of the iceberg.
5. Which paragraph covers the main idea?
[A] The first.
[B] The second.
[C] The third.
[D] The fourth.
1. prerogative 权力，（尤指）特权
2. chauffeur 受雇开车人，（尤指富人、要人的）司机
3. entourage 随行人员，伴随者，近侍；建筑物周围
4. astronomical 庞大的，天文的
5. adulation 奉承
6. gramophone 灌音
7. colossal 巨大的
8. exchequer 国库，财源
Exchequer Bond 国库债券
9. begrudge 感到不快/不满，忌妒
10. humdrum 平淡的，单调的
11. moan 呻吟声
moan about 发牢骚
1. the prerogative of Royalty或the royal prerogative
2. People turn out in their thousands to greet them.
【结构简析】turn out露面、集合、出席。EX: A vast crowd turned out to watch the match.大批观众到场观看比赛。
3. The great days of Hollywood have become legendry.
4. By today’s standards, the excesses of Hollywood do not seem quite so spectacular.
5. A single gramophone record nowadays may earn much more in royalties than the films of the past ever did.
1. B 他们享受一度只属于贵族享用的一切。第一段集中谈了这些：他们走到哪里，成千上万人们出来欢迎，却中发疯地要看一眼穿着花哨的偶像的笑容。这些歌星坐着司机开动的Rolls-Royces汽车、私人直升飞机，高级长官飞机到处走，永远围着一批经纪人、报界记者和保镖随从人员。他们的照片定期登在报刊上，因为歌星象贵族一样是新闻人物。
2. A 赞成。在第一段最后一句：“他们为他们的牺牲所获取的报酬难以计算，支付率惊人。”第二段一开始就点明“为什么不惊人？社会对高级表演者总是慷慨解囊。好莱坞的鼎盛时期名扬天下，著名歌星先手空前绝后的名、利、奉承。”第三段更明确指出：应该这样支付星族，这完全正确。企业中的顶尖人物因为他们为公司和国家所作的一切不也挣得高额工资？税务员应感谢他们每年为国库做出了巨大的贡献。所以谁会忌妒他们的报酬呢？最后一段进一步说明：欲成为星族的人冒着很大的风险，谁都知道只有一小撮人能成为顶尖人物，也可能多年的努力以彻底失败而告终，而成功的报酬确实很高，这是对他们冒险的补偿。这些内容都说明作者赞成巨额报酬。
3. A 在攀登顶峰中存在着激烈的竞争。这在第三段最后一句明确指出：获取顶尖的流行歌星的称号竞争激烈，但其报酬确实惊人。最后一段的风险说。还有最后一段第二句：说忌妒话的人应记住：最有名的星族代表的只是冰山之巅――人极少。每个成名的歌星身后就有成千上百个其他歌者为生存而奋斗。这都说明“竞争激烈”。
4. D 成功者只是冰山的顶尖――少极了。
5. D 第四段。主旨句是倒数第一、二句，成功的报酬确实很高，这是对其高度风险的还报补偿，如果他成功了，他肯定挣得多。那就是私人事业的根本/本质。
We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person’s knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It really is extraordinary that after all these years, educationists have still failed to device anything more efficient and reliable than examinations. For all the pious claim that examinations text what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite. They may be a good means of testing memory, or the knack of working rapidly under extreme pressure, but they can tell you nothing about a person’s true ability and aptitude.
As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none. That is because so much depends on them. They are the mark of success of failure in our society. Your whole future may be decided in one fateful day. It doesn’t matter that you weren’t feeling very well, or that your mother died. Little things like that don’t count: the exam goes on. No one can give of his best when he is in mortal terror, or after a sleepless night, yet this is precisely what the examination system expects him to do. The moment a child begins school, he enters a world of vicious competition where success and failure are clearly defined and measured. Can we wonder at the increasing number of ‘drop-outs’: young people who are written off as utter failures before they have even embarked on a career? Can we be surprised at the suicide rate among students?
A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt is rigidly laid down by a syllabus, so the student is encouraged to memorize. Examinations do not motivate a student to read widely, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to seek more and more knowledge, but induce cramming. They lower the standards of teaching, for they deprive the teacher of all freedoms. Teachers themselves are often judged by examination results and instead of teaching their subjects, they are reduced to training their students in exam techniques which they despise. The most successful candidates are not always the best educated; they are the best trained in the technique of working under duress.
The results on which so much depends are often nothing more than a subjective assessment by some anonymous examiner. Examiners are only human. They get tired and hungry; they make mistakes. Yet they have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time. They work under the same sort of pressure as the candidates. And their word carries weight. After a judge’s decision you have the right of appeal, but not after an examiner’s. There must surely be many simpler and more effective ways of assessing a person’s true abilities. Is it cynical to suggest that examinations are merely a profitable business for the institutions that run them? This is what it boils down to in the last analysis. The best comment on the system is this illiterate message recently scrawled on a wall: ‘I were a teenage drop-out and now I are a teenage millionaire.’
1. The main idea of this passage is
[A] examinations exert a pernicious influence on education.
[B] examinations are ineffective.
[C] examinations are profitable for institutions.
[D] examinations are a burden on students.
2. The author’s attitude toward examinations is
3. The fate of students is decided by
[D] students themselves.
4. According to the author, the most important of a good education is
[A] to encourage students to read widely.
[B] to train students to think on their own.
[C] to teach students how to tackle exams.
[D] to master his fate.
5. Why does the author mention court?
[A] Give an example.
[B] For comparison.
[C] It shows that teachers’ evolutions depend on the results of examinations.
[D] It shows the results of court is more effectise.
1. pernicious 有害的，恶性的，破坏性的
2. knack 窍门，诀窍
3. embark 乘船，登记
4. write off 勾销，注销。确认某食物已损失或无效
5. syllabus 教学大纲
6. cram 塞入，把某物塞进，突击式学习（尤指应考），以注入方式教人
7. duress 威胁，逼迫
8. stack 堆，垛
9. scrawl 写/画（的内容不工整，不仔细）潦草的笔迹，七扭八歪的字
10. script 讲稿，剧本，脚本，笔试答卷
11. cynical 愤世嫉俗的，自私得为人不齿的
12. boil down 熬浓，浓缩，归纳
1. For all the pious claim that examinations test what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite.
2. As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none.
【结构简析】second to none固定搭配，义：不亚于任何人或事物。
3. induce cramming
诱人采用突击式学习方式。Cram尽力塞入，应试突击学习。EX: cram for a chemistry test.为应付化学考试而临时抱佛脚。Cram pupils以填鸭式教学生。
4. Yet you have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time.
5. And their word carries weight.
6. This is what it boils down to in the last analysis.
1. A 考试对教育具有有害的影响。文章第一段就点明：考试是测试记忆的好方法，是测试在巨大压力下快速工作的技巧的好方法，却测不出一个人的真正能力和水平。第三段集中指出：考试不是促进学生广泛阅读，反而限制其阅读；考试不能使学生追求更多的知识，而是诱导学生进行应付考试的突击式学习。他们降低了教学水平，因为他们剥夺了老师的一切自由。常常以考试结果而不是所教课程来评定老师，是他们不得不以他们所轻视的考试技巧来培训学生。第二段和第四段也涉及其后果。
2. C 批评的。第一段中作者明确指出，考试方法依旧，不能测出人的能力和水平。第二段点名，这种无用的考试决定人生的成败。第三段说考试最成功的考试者经常不是最佳的受教育者，他们是在胁迫下最佳获得考试技巧者，而好的教育应能培养人的独立思考。第四段涉及阅卷者又累又饿，常犯错误，不得不在限定时间披阅一大堆匆忙中七扭八歪写出的卷子。最后一句“我过去是一个是来岁的辍学者，现在我是一个年轻的百万富翁”画龙点睛地指出，考试指挥下的教育的失败。这一切都说明作者对考试的批评态度。
3. C 考试。答案在第二段，考试是最终忧虑制造者，那是因为许多事情取决于考试：它们是我们社会中成功或失败的标志。你的未来可能全取决于这决定性的一天。
4. B 培养学生进行独立思考。第三段第一句话点明：好的教育应该是培养学生自己独立思考。
5. B 作对比，答案在最后一段倒数第二句“审判官裁决后，你有权力上诉，而披阅考卷人给分后，学生可没有上诉权”后面又谈及“一想到考试只对进行考试的机构有礼，未免太自私了。这酒是最终分析归纳的东西。”所以作者呼吁，可定还有许多更简便，更有效的评估人真正能力的方法。
How could faith beget such evil? After hundreds of members of a Ugandan cult, the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, died in what first appeared to be a suicidal fire in the village of Kanungu two weeks age, police found 153 bodies buried in a compound used by the cult in Buhunga, 25 miles away. When investigators searched the house of a cult leader in yet another village, they discovered 155 bodies, many buried under the concrete floor of the house. Then scores more were dug up at a cult member’s home. Some had been poisoned; others, often-young children, strangled. By week’s end, Ugandan police had counted 924 victims – including at least 530 who burned to death inside the sealed church – exceeding the 1978 Jonestown mass suicide and killings by followers of American cult leader Jim Jones that claimed 913 lives.
Authorities believe two of the cult’s leaders, Joseph Kibwetere, a 68-year-old former Roman Catholic catechism teacher who started the cult in 1987, and his “prophetess, ” Credonia Mwerinde, by some accounts a former prostitute who claimed to speak for the Virgin Mary, may still be alive and on the run. The pair had predicted the world would end on Dec. 31, 1999. When that didn’t happen, followers who demanded the return of their possessions, which they had to surrender on joining the cult, may have been systematically killed.
The Ugandan carnage focuses attention on the proliferation of religious cults in East Africa’s impoverished rural areas and city slums. According to the institute for the study of American religion, which researches cults and sects, there are now more than 5,000 indigenous churches in Africa, some with apocalyptic or revolutionary leanings. One such group is the Jerusalem Church of Christ in Nairobi’s Kawangwara slums, led by Mary Snaida-Akatsa, or “mommy” as she is known to her thousands of followers. She prophesies about the end of the world and accuses some members of being witches. One day the brought a “special visitor” to church, an Indian Sikh man she claimed was Jesus, and told her followers to “repent or pay the consequences.”
Most experts say Africa’s hardships push people to seek hope in religious cults. “These groups thrive because of poverty,” says Charles Onyango Obbo, editor of the Monitor, an independent newspaper in Uganda, and a close observer of cults. “People have no support, and they’re susceptible to anyone who is able to tap into their insecurity.” Additionally, they say, AIDS, which has ravaged East Africa, may also breed a fatalism that helps apocalyptic notions take root.
Some Africans turn to cults after rejecting mainstream Christian churches as “Western” or “non-African.” Agnes Masitsa, 30, who used to attend a Catholic church before she joined the Jerusalem Church of Christ, says of Catholicism: “It’s dull.”
Catholic icons. Yet, the Ugandan doomsday cult, like many of the sects, drew on features of Roman Catholicism, a strong force in the region. Catholic icons were prominent in its buildings, and some of its leaders were defrocked priests, such as Dominic Kataribabo, 32, who reportedly studied theology in the Los Angeles area in the mid-1980s. He had told neighbors he was digging a pit in his house to install a refrigerator; police have now recovered 81 bodies from under the floor and 74 from a field nearby. Police are unsure whether Kataribabo died in the church fire.
Still, there is the question: How could so many killings have been carried out without drawing attention? Villagers were aware of Kibwetere’s sect, whose followers communicated mainly through sign language and apparently were apprehensive about violating any of the cult’s commandments. There were suspicions. Ugandan president Yoweri Mseveni told the BBC that intelligence reports about the dangerous nature of the group had been suppressed by some government officials. On Thursday, police arrested an assistant district commissioner, the Rev. Amooti Mutazindwa, for allegedly holding back a report suggesting the cult posed a security threat.
Now, there are calls for African governments to monitor cults more closely. Says Gilbert Ogutu, a professor of religious studies at the University of Nairobi: “When cult leaders lose support, they become dangerous.”
1. Why did so may Ugandans die in faith?
[A] Many of them were killed for asking for the return of their possessions.
[B] They found the cult’s leaders had cheated them.
[C] They lost faith in cults.
[D] They are willing to die.
2. The main reason of people’s joining the cults is
3. What does Mary Snaide Akatsa prophesy?
[A] She prophesies the world will be flooded.
[B] She prophesies the world will be in fire.
[C] She prophesies about the end of the world.
[D] She prophesies he followers should die in faith.
4. Why do some Africans reject Christian Churches?
[A] They feel Christianity is dull.
[B] They reject Christian Churches as Western or non-African.
[C] They are susceptible.
[D] They are dangerous persons.
5. How could so many killing have been carried out without drawing attention?
[A] The cult acted secretly.
[B] The government officials did not see through its dangerous nature.
[C] There were no preventive measures.
[D] People were frightened.
1. beget 产生，引起，招致
2. cult 祭礼，狂烈的崇拜（者），迷信，邪教
3. compound 院子，场地
4. strangle 扼死，闷死
5. carnage 残杀，大屠杀，成堆的尸体
6. catechism 教理问答
7. prophet 预言者，先知
8. on the run 在逃
9. proliferation 扩散，繁殖
10. indigenous 本土的，土生土张的
11. apocalypse （基督教）启事（录）《圣经新约》
12. be susceptible 易受人影响
13. ravage 蹂躏，劫掠
14. fatalism 宿命论
15. apocalyptic 预警的
16. icon （东正教）圣像
17. doomsday 世界末日
18. Jerusalem 耶路撒冷，喻：天堂
19. Kenya 肯尼亚
20. Nairobi 内罗毕，肯尼亚首都
21. mommy 嬷嬷＝mother
22. repent 忏悔
23. Sikh 锡克教（信徒）
24. defrock 免去…圣职的。这里指：免去圣职的牧师
25. sect 宗教小组
26. pose 提问
1. …the Movement for the restoration of the Ten Commandments of God…
【结构简析】Ten commandments 十戒，是圣经中上帝再西奈山上给予摩西（犹太人的古代领袖）十大行为的神圣准则：
a) have no other god.
b) Do not make or warship idols.
c) Do not take the word of the lord in vain.
d) Keep the Sabbath holy.
e) Honor one’s father and mother.
f) Do not kill.
g) Do not commit adultery.
h) Do not steal.
i) Do not give false evidence.
j) Do not covet another’s property or wife.
2. the 1978 Jonestown mass suicide and killings by followers of American cult leader Jim Jones that claimed 913 lives.
3. they are susceptible to any one who is able to tap into their insecurity.
4. drew on features of Roman Catholicism.
1. A 许多人由于要归还他们的财产而遭到杀害。答案见第二段倒数第二句，这一对邪教领袖曾预言世界将于1999年12月31日借宿――世界末日来临。结果并没有发生，追随者就要求归还他们在入教时献上的一切，而遭到有计划有步骤地杀害。
B. 他们发现邪教头目欺骗他们。这只是起因之一，如果发现后不吭声也许不会遭劫。C.他们对邪教失去了信任。D. 他们愿意去死。
2. A 贫穷。主要原因就是穷。答案见第四段。许多专家认为非洲之艰苦生活促使人民在邪教中寻找希望。这些邪教群体之兴起就是因为贫穷。人民没有支柱、保障，很容易受影响。任何人都可利用他们不安的情绪。其次艾滋病在东非之猖獗，培育出宿命论观点，从而帮助预示可怕事情即将来临的思想扎根于心灵。
3. C 她预言世界末日。
4. B 他们把基督教会视为西方的或非非洲的而拒之门外。见第五段：有些非洲人在把基督教会视作西方的或非非洲的而拒之门外后皈依邪教。
5. A 邪教行动神秘。例：第一段中描述的好几百乌干达邪教组织成员死于初看好像是自杀性的火焰之中（自焚），在一个场院诱发现了153具尸体，在搜查邪教头目的房子中又发现了156具尸体，许多埋于房子的混凝土地板下面，还有好几十具从邪教成员家中挖出，其中有些人被毒死。其他，特别是孩子都是扼杀（窒息而死）。共计924人，至少有530人烧死在封闭的教堂里。倒数第三段，乌干达世界末日邪教一个头目――免去圣职的牧师，据说80年代中他研究神学，他告诉邻居他在家挖一个地窖放冰箱。现在警察发现地板下81具尸体，附近一场地74具尸体。上述两例都是神秘杀害，至于要归还财产之人更遭神秘杀害了。
These days we hear a lot of nonsense about the ‘great classless society’. The idea that the twentieth century is the age of the common man has become one of the great clichés of our time. The same old arguments are put forward in evidence. Here are some of them: monarchy as a system of government has been completely discredited. The monarchies that survive have been deprived of all political power. Inherited wealth has been savagely reduced by taxation and, in time, the great fortunes will disappear altogether. In a number of countries the victory has been complete. The people rule; the great millennium has become a political reality. But has it? Close examination doesn’t bear out the claim.
It is a fallacy to suppose that all men are equal and that society will be leveled out if you provide everybody with the same educational opportunities. (It is debatable whether you can ever provide everyone with the same educational opportunities, but that is another question.) The fact is that nature dispenses brains and ability with a total disregard for the principle of equality. The old rules of the jungle, ‘survival of the fittest’, and ‘might is right’ are still with us. The spread of education has destroyed the old class system and created a new one. Rewards are based on merit. For ‘aristocracy’ read ‘meritocracy’; in other respects, society remains unaltered: the class system is rigidly maintained.
Genuine ability, animal cunning, skill, the knack of seizing opportunities, all bring material rewards. And what is the first thing people do when they become rich? They use their wealth to secure the best possible opportunities for their children, to give them ‘a good start in life’. For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world. Private schools which offer unfair advantages over state schools are not banned because one of the principles in a democracy is that people should be free to choose how they will educate their children. In this way, the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent: an able child from a wealthy home can succeed far more rapidly than his poorer counterpart. Wealth is also used indiscriminately to further political ends. It would be almost impossible to become the leader of a democracy without massive financial backing. Money is as powerful a weapon as ever it was.
In societies wholly dedicated to the principle of social equality, privileged private education is forbidden. But even here people are rewarded according to their abilities. In fact, so great is the need for skilled workers that the least able may be neglected. Bright children are carefully and expensively trained to become future rulers. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated peasant.
1. What is the main idea of this passage?
[A] Equality of opportunity in the twentieth century has not destroyed the class system.
[B] Equality means money.
[C] There is no such society as classless society.
[D] Nature can’t give you a classless society.
2. According to the author, the same educational opportunities can’t get rid of inequality because
[A] the principle ‘survival of the fittest’ exists.
[B] Nature ignores equality in dispensing brains and ability.
[C] Material rewards are for genuine ability.
[D] People have the freedom how to educate their children.
3. Who can obtain more rapid success
[A] those with wealth.
[B] Those with the best brains.
[C] Those with the best opportunities.
[D] Those who have the ability to catch at opportunities.
4. Why does the author say the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent? Because
[A] money decides everything.
[B] Private schools offer advantages over state schools.
[C] People are free to choose the way of educating their children.
[D] Wealth is used for political ends.
5. According to the author, ‘class divisions’ refers to
[A] the rich and the poor.
[B] Different opportunities for people.
[C] Oppressor and the oppressed.
[D] Genius and stupidity.
1. discredit 损害，破坏，败坏（某人的名声），不可信
2. monarch 国王，女皇，君主政体
3. millennium 千年
the millennium 千僖年
4. bear out 证实
5. level out （升跌之后）呈平稳状态
6. meritocracy 英才管理，英才教育，能人统治
7. knack 技巧，诀窍
8. perpetuate 使永久，永存或持续
9. indiscriminate 不加鉴别的，不加分析的，任意的
10. boil down 归结为……
1. Close examination doesn’t bear out the claim.
2. might is right
3. For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world.
【结构简析】lip-service口惠而实不至。EX: He pays lip-service to feminism but his wife still does all the housework.他口口声声说支持女权主义，但全部家务仍是他妻子的事。
4. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated person.
1. A 二十世纪平等的机遇并没有摧毁阶级。文章一开始就对无阶级社会的论点进行了反驳：有人认为君主整体已完全摧毁，幸存下来的王公贵族已经被剥夺了一切政治权力，继承的财产为税收大幅度的削减，到时候，巨大的财富将消失殆尽，在许多国家中，已全面胜利，人民进行统治，伟大的太平盛世已成为政治显示。作者认为：深入检查证实这一断言不实。第二段提出了即使人人都获同样的受教育的机会，可人的天然智慧和能力与平等原则无关，适者生存，强权即公理依然存在。教育的普及摧毁了老的阶级体制，却创造新的，报酬是机遇才干成就。贵族统治就是英才统治，可在其他方面，社会依然，阶级确实存在。后面两段集中论述了金钱的作用。
2. B 自然界在分赋人智慧和能力是不会顾及平等。
3. A 有钱的人。第三段一开始就点明：真正的能力、动物般机敏狡猾、技能、善抓机会的诀窍，这一切都带来物质报偿。有了钱的人首要作的事情就是给孩子最佳教育机会，而私人学校教育优于公立学校，人们又有自由选择如何教育自己的孩子。在这个意义上，英才教育在某种程度上是永存的。一个来自富有家庭的有能力的孩子要比其对立面获得成功要快得多得多。
5. A 富人和穷人。纵然作者提及，同样的教育机会也不可能铲除不平等，因为上天赋予人之智慧是不可能考虑平等原则，可是作者也提到适者生存、强权即公理。贵族政治可读成英才教育。这已说明英才指的是贵族的英才。第四段进一步指出有钱的人首先要做的就是给子女一个良好的教育机会。而私立学校的教育质量优于公立学校。有钱人家的有能力的孩子成功机遇就高。财产还可用于政治目的，要成为民主国家的领袖就得有雄厚的财力支持。钱财和过去一样强有力。即使在以社会平等为原则的社会中，私立学校被禁，酬劳还是以人的能力为准，大量需要有技能的工作人员，而差劲的人没有人关注。天才的孩子予以仔细而又及其昂贵的培养以成为未来的统治者。
Biologically, there is only one quality which distinguishes us from animals: the ability to laugh. In a universe which appears to be utterly devoid of humor, we enjoy this supreme luxury. And it is a luxury, for unlike any other bodily process, laughter does not seem to serve a biologically useful purpose. In a divide world, laughter is a unifying force. Human beings oppose each other on a great many issues. Nations may disagree about systems of government and human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps, but we all share the ability to laugh. And laughter, in turn, depends on that most complex and subtle of all human qualities: a sense of humor Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal. This can best be seen from the world-wide popularity of Charlie Chaplin’s early films. The little man at odds with society never fails to amuse no matter which country we come from. As that great commentator on human affairs, Dr. Samuel Johnson, once remarked, ‘Men have been wise in very different modes; but they have always laughed in the same way.’
A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tingle to an earth quaking roar, but the effect is always the same. Humor helps us to maintain a correct sense of values. It is the one quality which political fanatics appear to lack. If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously. We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never get a lop sided view of things.
This is one of the chief functions of satire and irony. Human pain and suffering are so grim; we hover so often on the brink of war; political realities are usually enough to plunge us into total despair. In such circumstances, cartoons and satirical accounts of somber political events redress the balance. They take the wind out of pompous and arrogant politicians who have lost their sense of proportion. They enable us to see that many of our most profound actions are merely comic or absurd. We laugh when a great satirist like Swift writes about war in Gulliver’s Travels. The Lilliputians and their neighbors attack each other because they can’t agree which end to break an egg. We laugh because we meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too. It is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish.
The sense of humor must be singled out as man’s most important quality because it is associated with laughter. And laughter, in turn, is associated with happiness. Courage, determination, initiative – these are qualities we share with other forms of life. But the sense of humor is uniquely human. If happiness is one of the great goals of life, then it is the sense of humor that provides the key.
1. The most important of all human qualities is
[A] a sense of humor.
[B] A sense of satire.
[C] A sense of laughter.
[D] A sense of history.
2. The author mentions about Charlie Chaplin’s early films because
[A] they can amuse people.
[B] Human beings are different from animals.
[C] They show that certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal.
[D] They show that people have the same ability to laugh.
3. One of the chief functions of irony and satire is
[A] to show absurdity of actions.
[B] to redress balance.
[C] to take the wind out of politicians.
[D] to show too much grimness in the world.
4. What do we learn from the sentence ‘it is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish in totalitarian regimes?’
[A] It can reveal the truth of political events with satire.
[B] It can arouse people to riot.
[C] It shows tragedy and comedy are related.
[D] It can make people laugh.
5. Who is Swift?
[A] A novelist.
[B] A poet.
[C] A dramatist.
[D] A essayist.
1. devoid 没有，缺乏
2. plague n.瘟疫，惹人烦恼的人和事v.给……造成麻烦，痛苦，困难
3. faction 派别
4. comic stereotype 可笑/滑稽的模式
5. commentator （集注）作者，评论员，解说员
6. tinkle n.一连串的丁零声，电话声，v.使发出丁零声
7. fanatic 狂热者（尤指宗教、政治的狂热）
8. lop-sided 不均匀的
9. hover 翱翔，盘旋；彷徨
10. somber 低沉的，暗淡的，严峻的
11. redress 纠正，补偿
12. pompous 自大的，浮夸的
13. arrogant 傲慢的
14. proportion 均衡，匀称，平衡，比例
15. Lilliputian 微型的，极小的，源自《格列佛游记》中的小人国里的人
16. totalitarian 极权主义的
17. regime 政体，政权，统治方式或制度
1． In a divided world, laughter is a unifying force.
2． Human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps,
3． Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal.
4． Charlie Chaplin查理·卓别林1889-1977，英国讽刺滑稽剧及电影演员，导演及制片人。
5． At odds with society和社会格格不入。
6． Dr. Samuel Johnson撒缪尔·约翰生，1709-1784，英国辞典编撰者及作家。
7． A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tinkle to an earth quaking roar.
8． If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously.
9． We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never get a lop-sided view of things.
10． Take the wind out of sb’s sails使某人气馁或泄气。
11． Swift Jonathan swift乔纳森·思维福特1667-1745，英国作家，生于都柏林，曾获牛津大学硕士，三一学院神学博士学位，1688年到英国，后加入英国国教会。他同情英国统治下的爱尔兰人民，积极参加他们为争取自由和民族独立的斗争。他以政治讽刺文著世，其文笔犀利、讽刺尖锐、文章推理严密，用词简洁、语言朴实清晰，被认为是英语的典范，《格列佛游记》是他的代表作之一。
12． We laugh because we are meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too.
【结构简析】mean to do是打算或注定要…，一般用于被动。
1. A 幽默感。文章一开始就提出人类有别于动物是人有笑的功能，世界纷争繁杂、人际关系因意识观点差异而对峙，国家制度不一，但人们都能笑。笑基于人类最复杂而又微妙的品质――幽默感。反过来说没有幽默感的人恐怕难以笑。第二段正式指出：幽默感表现形式多种多样，而笑可由微笑到狂笑种种，但其效果相同，幽默感有助于我们保持正确的价值观。这是政治狂热者所缺乏的特征。如果我们能看见滑稽可笑的一面，我们就不会犯过于看重自己的错误。我们总会记得悲剧离喜剧不愿，因此，我们不会有偏重某一测的观点。第四段画龙点睛的指出幽默是人类最重要的特征，因为它和笑声结合在一起。而笑又是和幸福联系在一起。勇气、决心、创造力特征，我们和其他生命形式共享，而幽默感是人类所独有的。如果幸福是我们生活的伟大目标，那幽默感就是开启幸福的钥匙。
2. C 作者提卓别林的电影的目的是证明某些喜剧模式对全世界都有吸引力。
Greece, economically, is in the black. With very little to export other than such farm products as tobacco, cotton and fruit, the country earns enough from ‘invisible earnings’ to pay for its needed, growing imports. From the sending out of things the Greeks, earn only $285 million; from tourism, shipping and the remittances of Greeks abroad, the country takes in an additional #375 million and this washes out the almost $400 million by which imports exceed exports.
It has a balanced budget. Although more than one drachma out of four goes for defense, the government ended a recent year with a slight surplus -- $66 million. Greece has a decent reserve of almost a third of a billion dollars in gold and foreign exchange. It has a government not dependent on coalescing incompatible parties to obtain parliamentary majorities.
In thus summarizing a few happy highlights, I don’t mean to minimize the vast extent of Greece’s problems. It is the poorest country by a wide margin in Free Europe, and poverty is widespread. At best an annual income of $60 to $70 is the lot of many a peasant, and substantial unemployment plagues the countryside, cities, and towns of Greece. There are few natural resources on which to build any substantial industrial base. Some years ago I wrote here:
“Greek statesmanship will have to create an atmosphere in which home and foreign savings will willingly seek investment opportunities in the back ward economy of Greece. So far, most American and other foreign attempt have bogged down in the Greek government’s red tape and shrewdness about small points.”
Great strides have been made. As far back as 1956, expanding tourism seemed a logical way to bring needed foreign currencies and additional jobs to Greece. At that time I talked with the Hilton Hotel people, who had been examining hotel possibilities, and to the Greek government division responsible for this area of the economy. They were hopelessly deadlocked in almost total differences of opinion and outlook.
Today most of the incredibly varied, beautiful, historical sights of Greece have new, if in many cases modest, tourist facilities. Tourism itself has jumped from approximately $31 million to over $90 million. There is both a magnificent new Hilton Hotel in Athens and a completely modernized, greatly expanded Grande Bretagne, as well as other first-rate new hotels. And the advent of jets has made Athens as accessible as Paris or Rome – without the sky-high prices of traffic-choked streets of either.
1. The title below that best expresses the ideas of this passage is
[A] Greek income and expenditures.
[B] The improving economic situation in Greece.
[C] The value of tourism.
[D] Military expenditures.
2. Many peasants earn less than
[A] $60 a week.
[B] $2 a week.
[C] $1 a day.
[D] $10 a month.
3. The Greek Government spends
[A] more than 25%of its budget on military terms.
[B] More than its collects.
[C] A third of a billion dollars in gold.
[D] Less than 25% of its budget on military terms.
4. According to the passage, Greece has
[A] a dictatorship.
[B] a monarchy.
[C] a single majority party.
[D] too much red tape.
5. Greece imports annually goods and materials
[A] totaling almost $700 million.
[B] that balance exports.
[C] that are paid by tourists.
[D] costing $66 million.
1. remittance 汇款（额）
2. wash out 洗掉，取消、告吹、冲掉、筋疲力尽
3. drachma 古希腊银币 德拉克马（现代希腊货币单位）
4. lot 份额
5. incompatible 水火不相容的，不能共存的
6. coalesce （政党）联合，愈合，接合
7. highlight 光线最强处，最重要部分，最精彩场面
8. margin （成本和售价的）差额，空白，边缘
9. bog down 陷于困境，使停顿
10. red tape 官样文章，烦琐和拖拉的公务程序
11. shrewdness 清明，机灵
12. deadlock 僵局，僵持；使陷于僵局
1. Greece, economically is in the black.
2. With very little export other than such farm products as tobacco, cotton and fruit, the country earns enough from invisible earnings to pay its needed, growing imports.
3. This washes out almost $400 million by which imports exceed exports.
4. So far most American and other foreign attempts have bogged down in the Greek government’s red tape and shrewdness about small points.
5. They were hopelessly deadlocked in almost total differences of opinion and outlook.
6. And the advent of jets has made Athens as accessible as Paris and Rome – without the sky-high prices of traffic chocked streets of either.
1. B 希腊经济形式的改善。文章围绕这一中心而写。文章一开始就提出希腊出口除了农产品之外，没有什么东西，而无形资产如旅游、运输和国外的汇款等可挣得37500万美元。两项加在一起来抵消入超赤字近4亿美元，稍有结余。第三段指出，希腊是自由欧洲最穷的国家，许多农民年收入为60－70美元。失业现象席卷城市乡镇，建立工业基地的自然资源极少。政府的繁琐事务程序，关注琐事等情况使美国和其他国家试图展开工作陷于停滞状态。第四段开始指出1956年起开拓旅游业，不过意见还是分歧。第五断提出今天惊人的变化，美丽的历史古城呈现新貌，就旅游一项收入由3100万增至9000万美元。旅馆面貌大变。
3. A 百分之25以上用于军事。第二段：虽然四个德拉克马中有一个用于国防，政府最终还稍有结余――6600万美元。
Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the 1960’s when the Small Business Administration (SBA) began making federally guaranteed loans and government-sponsored management and technical assistance available to minority business enterprises. While this program enabled many minority entrepreneurs to form new businesses, the results were disappointing, since managerial inexperience, unfavorable locations, and capital shortages led to high failure rates. Even 15 years after the program was implemented, minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economy’s total receipts.
Recently federal policymakers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the minority business sector by moving away from directly aiding small minority enterprises and toward supporting large, growth-oriented minority firms through intermediary companies. In this approach, large corporations participate in the development of successful and stable minority businesses by making use of government-sponsored venture capital. The capital is used by a participating company to establish a Minority Enterprise Small Businesses that have potential to become future suppliers of customers of the sponsoring company.
MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available. Further, since potential markets for the minority businesses already exist through the sponsoring companies, the minority businesses face considerably less risk in terms of location and market fluctuation. Following early financial and operating problems, sponsoring corporations began to capitalize MESBIC’s far above the legal minimum of $500,000 in order to generate sufficient income and to sustain the quality of management needed. MESBIC’s are now emerging as increasingly important financing sources for minority enterprises.
Ironically, MESBIC staffs, which usually consist of Hispanic and Black professionals, tend to approach investments in minority firms more pragmatically than do many MESBIC directors, who are usually senior managers from sponsoring corporations. The latter often still think mainly in terms of the ‘social responsibility approach’ and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria would warrant. Such differences in viewpoint have produced uneasiness among many minority staff members, who feel that minority entrepreneurs and businesses should be judged by established business considerations. These staff members believe their point of view is closer to the original philosophy of MESBIC’s and they are concerned that, unless a more prudent course if followed, MESBIC directors may revert to policies likely to re-create the disappointing results of the original SBA approach.
1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
[A] The use of MESBIC’s for aiding minority entrepreneurs seems to have greater potential for success than does the original SBA approach.
[B] There is a crucial difference in point of view between the staff and directors of some MESBIC’s.
[C] After initial problems with management and marketing, minority businesses have begun to expand at a steady rate.
[D] Minority entrepreneurs wishing to form new businesses now have several equally successful federal programs on which to rely.
2. According to the passage, the MESBIC approach differ s from the SBA approach in that MESBIC’s
[A] seek federal contracts to provide market for minority businesses.
[B] Encourage minority businesses to provide markets for other minority businesses.
[C] Attempt to maintain a specified rate of growth in the minority business sector.
[D] Rely on the participation of large corporations to finance minority businesses.
3. Which of the following statements about the SBA program can be inferred from the passage?
[A] The maximum term for loans made to recipient businesses was 15 years.
[B] Business loans were considered to be more useful to recipient businesses than was management and technical assistance.
[C] The anticipated failure rate for recipient businesses was significantly lower than the rate that actually resulted.
[D] Recipient businesses were encouraged to relocate to areas more favorable for business development.
4. The author refers to the ‘financial and operating problems’ encountered by MESBIC’s primarily in order to
[A] broaden the scope of the discussion to include the legal considerations of funding MESBIC’s through sponsoring companies.
[B] call attention to the fact that MESBIC’s must receive adequate funding in order to function effectively.
[C] show that sponsoring companies were willing to invest only $500,000 of government-sponsored venture capital in the original MESBIC’s.
[D] Compare SBA and MESBIC limits on minimum funding.
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the attitude of some MESBIC staff member toward the investments preferred by some MESBIC directors can be best described as
1. implement 执行，履行
2. growth-oriented 增长潜力的，有发展性的
3. intermediary company 中介公司，中间公司
4. venture capital 风险资本
5. entrepreneur 企业家，创业者
6. fluctuation 波动，涨落，起伏
7. pragmatically 实用地
1. Even 15 years after the program was implemented minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economy’s total receipts.
2. Recently federal policy makers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the supporting large, growth oriented minority firms through intermediary companies.
3. By making use of government-sponsored venture capital.
4. The MESBIC then provides capital and guidance to minority businesses that have potential to become future suppliers or customers of the sponsoring company.
5. MESBIC – minority enterprise small business investment company
6. MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available.
7. The latter often still think mainly in terms of the ‘social responsibility approach’ and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria would warrant.
1. A 运用MESBIC来帮助少数民族企业似乎比原来SBA的方法更具成功的可能性。文章一开始就点名SBA（小型企业管理局）向少数民族企业提供联邦保证贷款，政府资助管理和技术方面的帮助，结果令人失望。组建成的少数民族新企业由于管理上缺乏经验、地点不佳、资金短缺而导致失败的情况很多。其他见难句译注1、2、3。总之在MESBIC支持下：为它的潜在市场提供大量资金等，使它们在地点和市场流通方面风险小的多，从而带来足够的收入和保持所需的管理质量。这一切都说明MESBIC比SBA的成功可能性大。
2. D 依靠打工四向少数民族企业投资。见第二段第二句：大公司利用政府资助的风险资本参与成功而又稳固的少数民族企业的发展。参与的大公司用这笔资金建立了“少数民族小型企业投资公司”（MESBIC）
3. C 预期加入SBA项目中的公司的失败率比实际失败率低得多。文内没有直接点出，而是从（见第一题注释）SBA帮助的企业失败率很高――令人失望，从而推断C项结论。
4. B 为的是引人注意这一实际情况：MESBIC必须取得足够的资金才能有效地运转。这在第三段最后一句：在经历了早期财政和运行问题后，赞助公司给MESBIC注入的资金远远超过了50万美元的法定最低限额，以获得足够的收入并保持所需的管理质量。MESBIC现在正成为日益重要的少数民族企业的资金来源。这说明没有足够的资金是难以有效运转的。
5. A 失望。文章最后一段MESBIC的职工――一般是拉美和黑人专业人员在少数民族公司的投资上比MEBSIC的领导者更切实际。这些高级经理从社会责任角度看问题，会选择更具风险性，不太吸引人的项目。观点分歧使许多少数民族职工感到不安，他们认为应以公司的业务爆出来评价少数民族企业家及其企业。者充分说明MEBSIC的职工对领导所青睐的投资项目不满意和失望。
No one can be a great thinker who does not realize that as a thinker it is her first duty to follow her intellect to whatever conclusions it may lead. Truth gains more even by the errors of one who with due study and preparation, thinks for himself, than by the true opinions of those who only hold them because they do not suffer themselves to think. No that it is solely, of chiefly, to form great thinkers that freedom of thinking is required. One the contrary, it is as much or even more indispensable to enable average human beings to attain the mental stature which they are capable of. There have been and many again be great individual thinkers in a general atmosphere of mental slavery. But there never has been, nor ever will be, in that atmosphere an intellectually active people. Where any of heterodox speculation was for a time suspended, where there is a tacit convention that principles are not to be disputed: where the discussion of the greatest questions which can occupy humanity is considered to be closed, we cannot hope to find that generally high scale of mental activity which has made some periods of history so remarkable. Never when controversy avoided the subjects which are large and important enough to kindle enthusiasm was the mind of a people stirred up fro9m its foundation and the impulse given which raised even persons of the most ordinary intellect to something of the dignity of thinking beings.
She who knows only her own side of the case knows little of that. Her reasons may be food, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if she s equally unable to refute the reasons of the opposite side; if she does not so much as know what they are, she has no ground for preferring either opinion. The rational position for her would be suspension of judgment, and unless she contents herself with that, she is either led by authority, or adopts, like the generality of the world the side to which she feels the most inclination. Nor is it enough that she should heat the arguments of adversaries from her own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied by what they offer as refutations, That is not the way to do justice to the arguments, or bring them into real contact with her own mind. She must be able to hear them form persons who actually believe them; who defend them in earnest, and do their very utmost for them. She must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; she must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else she will never really possess herself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty. Ninety-nine in a hundred of what are called educated persons are in this condition; even of those who can argue fluently for their opinions. Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know; they have never thrown themselves into the mental position of those who think differently form them and considered what such persons may have to say; and consequently they do not, in any proper sense of the word, know the doctrines which they themselves profess.
1. The best title for this passage is
[A] The Age of Reason [B] The need for Independent Thinking
[C] The Value of Reason [D] Stirring People’s Minds
2. According to the author, it is always advisable to
[A] have opinions which cannot be refuted.
[B] adopt the point of view to which one feels the most inclination.
[C] be acquainted with the arguments favoring the point of view with which one disagrees,
[D] suspend heterodox speculation in favor of doctrinaire approaches.
3. According to the author, in a great period such as the Renaissance we may expect to find
[A] acceptance of truth [B] controversy over principles
[C] inordinate enthusiasm [D] a dread of heterodox speculation
4. According to the author, the person who holds orthodox beliefs without examination may be described in all of the following ways EXCEPT as
[A] enslaved by tradition [B] less than fully rational
[C] determinded on controversy [D] having a closed mind
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements
[A] A truly great thinker makes no mistakes.
[B] Periods of intellectual achievement are periods of unorthodox reflection,
[C] The refutation of accepted ideas can best be provided by one’s own teachers.
[D] excessive controversy prevents clear thinking,
1. stature 高度，境界，状况
2. heterodox 不合乎公认的标准的，异端的，异教的
3. tacit 心照不宣
4. refute 反驳
5. adversary 对立面，对手，敌人
6. plausible 善于花言巧语的/辞令的，似乎有理的/有可能的
7. doctrine 教义，学说
8. profess 表示，明言，承认，自称，信奉
1. True gains more even by the errors of one who with due study and preparation, thinks for himself, then by the true opinions of those who only hold them because they do not suffer themselves to think.
2. mental slavery 思想禁锢，精神受奴役状态
3. Never when controversy avoided the subjects which are large and important enough to kindle enthusiasm was the mind of a people stirred up from its foundation and the impulse given which raised even persons of the most ordinary intellect to something of the dignity of thinking beings.
[结构简析] 这是一句以Never否定词开头的倒装句，正常的句序应把never放在句中，形成：the mind of people was never stirred up from its foundations
4. The rational position for her would be suspension of judgement, and unless she contents herself with that, she is either led by authority, or adopts, like the generality of the world, the side to which she feels the most inclination.
5. That is not the way to do justice to the arguments, or bring them into teal contact with her own mind.
[结构简析] do justice to 公平对待，适当处理。 Bring……into contact with 使和……接触／联系。
6. She must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; she must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else she will never really possess herself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty.
[结构简析] most plausible and persuasive form 很善于辞令和有说服力形式。 possess oneself of 获得，据有，把……占为己有。 them=arguments。 else 否则的话。
7. Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know; they have never thrown themselves into the mental position of those who think differently form them and considered what such persons may have to say; and consequently they do not, in any proper sense of the word, know the doctrines which they themselves profess.
[结构简析] throw oneself into…position 设身处地，使自己处于……位置／地点。
１. B 独立思考的必要性。见难句译注１。这里说明进行独立思考的人即使犯错误，真理也能从中获得东西，而那些懒于思考人，即使持有正确的观点，真理也难以获得东西。第一段还点明思想禁锢时期，即不能进行独立思考时期，难以讨论重大议题，产生不了活跃的人民，绝不会出现像辉煌的文艺复兴那种时期（见第二题注）。第二段也是围绕独立思考而写，只是从具体点着眼：人只知自己，不知对方无法获得真理，只有独立思考两方，才能不为权威所左右，不会跟着自己感觉走，最终知道自己的真正主张。
A. 理性时代。 C. 驳斥的价值。 D. 激发人民的思想。
２. C 熟悉有利于自己不同意／反对观点的论点。这是作者在第二段讲述的重要论点。他认为一个人只知自己一方，推理极好，无人能反驳，却不知对方的推理，也不能够予以反驳的话，他就无权选择两方的任一论点，其理智位置是停止判断。否则她就会（像世界上芸芸众生那样）不是为权威所“引导”，就是跟着感觉（的倾向）走。其二，作者提出：光听自己的老师讲述对立面的论点，以及他们所提出的反驳论点。只是不够的，必须倾听那些人（他们真正相信对立的观点）的论点，并为此积极热情，竭尽全力辩护，才能使自己的思想和独立论点接触，公正的作出公正的判断。
A. 具有不能驳斥的观点。 B. 采取个人感觉最倾向的观点。 D. 停止有利于教条主义研究的异端思考。
３. B 辩论原则问题。答案在第一段：在思想禁锢的气氛中，过去，现在可能会产生个别的思想家，但绝不会有思想活跃的人民，在那里有一种心照不宣的惯律：原则决不能讨论——认为占据人类心灵的最重大问题的讨论应封闭，我们不能期望看到一般高级的思想活动。这种思想活动曾使历史上某些时期光辉灿烂。而文艺复兴就是思想活动的顶峰时期，必然会讨论原则问题，所以选B 。
A. 接受真理，周经过讨论才能接受真理。 C. 过度的热情。 D. 害怕异端思考。
４. C. 在辩论上，坚定不移。这是一道推断题，一般讲：持有未经检验的正统信仰的人不会独立思考，更不会怀疑他所信仰的东西。
A. 为传统所奴役。 B. 不怎么理智。 D. 头脑闭塞。这种人必然受传统思想控制，不理智更不愿接受外界新鲜事物。
５. B. 在思想方面取得成就的时期就是进行非正统反思的时期。见３题注释。
A. 一个真正的思想家不犯错误。 C. 一个人的老师最能提供所接受思想观点的反驳。 D. 过度的辩论会制止清晰的思考。
Can electricity cause cancer? In a society that literally runs on electric power, the very idea seems preposterous. But for more than a decade, a growing band of scientists and journalists has pointed to studies that seem to link exposure to electromagnetic fields with increased risk of leukemia and other malignancies. The implications are unsettling, to say the least, since everyone comes into contact with such fields, which are generated by everything electrical, from power lines and antennas to personal computers and micro-wave ovens. Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often contradictory, it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimate—or the worst kind of paranoia.
Now the alarmists have gained some qualified support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the executive summary of a new scientific review, released in draft form late last week, the EPA has put forward what amounts to the most serious government warning to date. The agency tentatively concludes that scientific evidence “suggests a casual link” between extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields—those having very longwave-lengths—and leukemia, lymphoma and brain cancer, While the report falls short of classifying ELF fields as probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as “a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.”
The report is no reason to panic—or even to lost sleep. If there is a cancer risk, it is a small one. The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred a great deal of debate within the Bush Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House. But now no one can deny that the issue must be taken seriously and that much more research is needed.
At the heart of the debate is a simple and well-understood physical phenomenon: When an electric current passes through a wire, tit generates an electromagnetic field that exerts forces on surrounding objects, For many years, scientists dismissed any suggestion that such forces might be harmful, primarily because they are so extraordinarily weak. The ELF magnetic field generated by a video terminal measures only a few milligauss, or about one-hundredth the strength of the earth’s own magnetic field, The electric fields surrounding a power line can be as high as 10 kilovolts per meter, but the corresponding field induced in human cells will be only about 1 millivolt per meter. This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves generate.
How could such minuscule forces pose a health danger? The consensus used to be that they could not, and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds of radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body. Such “ionizing” radiations have been clearly linked to increased cancer risks and there are regulations to control emissions.
But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations between sets of data, do not prove cause and effect. Though there is a body of laboratory work showing that exposure to ELF fields can have biological effects on animal tissues, a mechanism by which those effects could lead to cancerous growths has never been found.
The Pentagon is for from persuaded. In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force scientists charge its authors with having “biased the entire document” toward proving a link. “Our reviewers are convinced that there is no suggestion that (electromagnetic fields) present in the environment induce or promote cancer,” the Air Force concludes. “It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this report.” Then Pentagon’s concern is understandable. There is hardly a unit of the modern military that does not depend on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment, from huge ground-based radar towers to the defense systems built into every warship and plane.
1. The main idea of this passage is
[A]. studies on the cause of cancer
[B]. controversial view-points in the cause of cancer
[C]. the relationship between electricity and cancer.
[D]. different ideas about the effect of electricity on caner.
2. The view-point of the EPA is
[A]. there is casual link between electricity and cancer.
[B]. electricity really affects cancer.
[D].low frequency electromagnetic field is a possible cause of cancer
3. Why did the Pentagon and Whit House object to the release of the report? Because
[A]. it may stir a great deal of debate among the Bush Administration.
[B]. every unit of the modern military has depended on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment.
[C]. the Pentagon’s concern was understandable.
[D]. they had different arguments.
4. It can be inferred from physical phenomenon
[A]. the force of the electromagnetic field is too weak to be harmful.
[B]. the force of the electromagnetic field is weaker than the electric field that the cells generate.
[C]. electromagnetic field may affect health.
[D]. only more powerful radiation can knock electron out of human body.
5. What do you think ordinary citizens may do after reading the different arguments?
[A].They are indifferent. [B]. They are worried very much.
[C]. The may exercise prudent avoidance. [C]. They are shocked.
1. preposterous 反常的，十分荒谬的，乖戾的
2. leukemia 白血病
3. malignancy 恶性肿瘤
4. legitimate 合法的，合理的
5. paranoia 偏执狂，妄想狂。这里指：无根据的担心。
6. lymphoma 淋巴瘤
7. carcinogen 致癌物
8. minuscule 很小的，很不重要
9. consensus 舆论
10. wallop 乱窜，猛冲，冲击力
11. epidemiological 流行病学的
12. blistering 罗嗦的，胡扯的
13. critique 评论，批评
14. imprimatur 出版许可（官方审查后的），批准
1. Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often contradictory, it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimate—or the worst kind of paranoia.
2. EPA——U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 美国环境保护署
3． While the report falls short (缺乏，不够) of classifying ELF fields as probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as “a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.”
4． The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred a great deal of debate within the Bush Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House
5. This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves generate.
6. …and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds of radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body.
7. But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations between sets of data, do not prove cause and effect.
8. a body of laboratory work 一批研究成果。
9. In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force scientists charge its authors with having “biased the entire document” toward proving a link.
10. It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this report.
1. D 电力对癌症影响的不同观点。文章一开始就提出了“电会致癌吗？”这个问题。十多年来，一大批科学家和新闻界人士都指出：研究结果似乎表示：接触电磁场可能会增加患白血病和其他恶性肿瘤的危险性。所以说到目前为止还难以确定电力对健康的影响究竟是理性的，还是杞人忧天。见难句注释1。第二段公布了环保署的报告，见难句注释3。第三段说明：即使有致癌危险也是极微的。但应予以认真对待，进行更多的研究。而第七段中空军方面的科学家还没有被说服（见难句注释9），明确提出，我们的评论员认为没有迹象说明环境中存在的电力会诱发或促发癌症。
A. 对致癌因素的研究。 B. 致癌原因方面有争议的观点，这两项根本部队，和文内电力毫无关系。 C. 电力和癌症的关系，文中涉及的是电力究竟会不会致癌的两种观点，而不是两者之关系。
2. A. 电和致癌有一定难以确定的关系。答案在第二段第三句，环保署目前的结论是据科学证据指出极低频电磁场——具有长波的电磁场——和白血病，淋巴瘤及脑癌之间有着难以确定的联系，见难句注释3。
A. 电确实致癌，不对。 C. 有争议的。说的不够清楚，争议什么。 D. 低频磁场是一个可能致癌因素。这只是论点的一面。
3. B. 现代军事的任何部门都一直依赖于应用大量应用电子设备。五角大楼和白宫所以反对环保署公布报告之理由就在此。空军方面的专家所以说环保署方面的报告“歪曲了整个文件以证明两者之间的关系”也在此。见难句注释4。所以文内说“角大楼的关注是可以理解的。”
A. 报告会在布什政府内引起大规模的辩论，这是结果。 C. 五角大楼的关注是可以理解的，这不是原因。 D. 他们有不同的观点。
B. 磁场力比细胞产生的电磁场弱。只是明确指出的事实。 C. 磁场力对人的健康有害。不对。 D. 只有更强的辐射才能把人体中的电子击出来。不对。
5. C. 他们会采取谨慎小心避开电器的途径。因为他们不可能象A项那样漠不关心。这种问题直接影响人的生命。
B. 他们非常担忧。 D. 他们感到震惊，这两项都不可能，因为还在争议中，唯一的途径是尽量避开和电器接触。
Yet the difference in tome and language must strike us, so soon as it is philosophy that speaks: that change should remind us that even if the function of religion and that of reason coincide, this function is performed in the two cases by very different organs. Religions are many, reason one. Religion consists of conscious ideas, hopes, enthusiasms, and objects of worship; it operates by grace and flourishes by prayer. Reason, on the other hand, is a mere principle or potential order, on which indeed we may come to reflect but which exists in us ideally only, without variation or stress of any kind. We conform or do not conform to it; it does not urge or chide us, not call for any emotions on our part other than those naturally aroused by the various objects which it unfolds in their true nature and proportion. Religion brings some order into life by weighting it with new materials. Reason adds to the natural materials only the perfect order which it introduces into them. Rationality is nothing but a form, an ideal constitution which experience may more or less embody. Religion is a part of experience itself, a mass of sentiments and ideas. The one is an inviolate principle, the other a changing and struggling force. And yet this struggling and changing force of religion seems to direct man toward something eternal. It seems to make for an ultimate harmony within the soul and for an ultimate harmony between the soul and all that the soul depends upon. Religion, in its intent, is a more conscious and direct pursuit of the Life of Reason than is society, science, or art, for these approach and fill out the ideal life tentatively and piecemeal, hardly regarding the foal or caring for the ultimate justification of the instinctive aims. Religion also has an instinctive and blind side and bubbles up in all manner of chance practices and intuitions; soon, however, it feels its way toward the heart of things, and from whatever quarter it may come, veers in the direction of the ultimate.
Nevertheless, we must confess that this religious pursuit of the Life of Reason has been singularly abortive. Those within the pale of each religion may prevail upon themselves, to express satisfaction with its results, thanks to a fond partiality in reading the past and generous draughts of hope for the future; but any one regarding the various religions at once and comparing their achievements with what reason requires, must feel how terrible is the disappointment which they have one and all prepared for mankind. Their chief anxiety has been to offer imaginary remedies for mortal ills, some of which are incurable essentially, while others might have been really cured by well-directed effort. The Greed oracles, for instance, pretended to heal out natural ignorance, which has its appropriate though difficult cure, while the Christian vision of heaven pretended to be an antidote to our natural death—the inevitable correlate of birth and of a changing and conditioned existence. By methods of this sort little can be done for the real betterment of life. To confuse intelligence and dislocate sentiment by gratuitous fictions is a short-sighted way of pursuing happiness. Nature is soon avenged. An unhealthy exaltation and a one-sided morality have to be followed by regrettable reactions. When these come. The real rewards of life may seem vain to a relaxed vitality, and the very name of virtue may irritate young spirits untrained in and natural excellence. Thus religion too often debauches the morality it comes to sanction and impedes the science it ought to fulfill.
What is the secret of this ineptitude? Why does religion, so near to rationality in its purpose, fall so short of it in its results? The answer is easy; religion pursues rationality through the imagination. When it explains events or assigns causes, it is an imaginative substitute for science. When it gives precepts, insinuates ideals, or remoulds aspiration, it is an imaginative substitute for wisdom—I mean for the deliberate and impartial pursuit of all food. The condition and the aims of life are both represented in religion poetically, but this poetry tends to arrogate to itself literal truth and moral authority, neither of which it possesses. Hence the depth and importance of religion becomes intelligible no less than its contradictions and practical disasters. Its object is the same as that of reason, but its method is to proceed by intuition and by unchecked poetical conceits.
1. As used in the passage, the author would define “wisdom” as
[A]. the pursuit of rationality through imagination.
[B]. an unemotional search for the truth.
[C]. a purposeful and unbiased quest for what is best.
[D]. a short-sighted way of pursuing happiness
2. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?
[A]. Religion seeks the truth through imagination, reason, in its search, utilizes the emotions.
[B]. Religion has proved an ineffective tool in solving man’s problems.
[C]. Science seeks a piece meal solution to man’s questions.
[D]. The functions of philosophy and reason are the same.
3. According to the author, science differs from religion in that
[A]. it is unaware of ultimate goals. [B]. it is unimaginative.
[C]. its findings are exact and final. [D]. it resembles society and art.
4. The author states that religion differs from rationality in that
[A]. it relies on intuition rather than reasoning .
[B]. it is not concerned with the ultimate justification of its instinctive aims.
[C]. it has disappointed mankind.
[D]. it has inspired mankind.
5. According to the author, the pursuit of religion has proved to be
[A]. imaginative. [B]. a provider of hope for the future.
[C]. a highly intellectual activity [D]. ineffectual.
1. grace 恩赐，仁慈，感化，感思祷告
2. chide 责备
3. sentiment 情感
4. inviolate 不受侵犯的，纯洁的
5. intent 意义，含义
6. piecemeal 一件件，逐渐的，零碎的
7. bubble up 起泡，沸腾，兴奋
8. veer 改变方向，转向
9. abortive 夭折的，失败的，中断的，流产的。
10. pale 范围，界限
11. draught 要求
12. oracle 神谕宣誓，预言，圣言
13. antidote 解毒药，矫正方法
14. correlate 相互关系
15. dislocate 使离开原来位置，打乱正常秩序
16. gratuitous 无偿的，没有理由的。
17. debauch 使失落，放荡
18. sanction 支持，鼓励，认可
19. impede 妨碍，制止
20. ineptitude 不恰当，无能，愚蠢
21. insinuate 暗示
22. remould 重塑，重铸
23. aspiration 抱负，壮志
24. arrogate 没来由反把……归于（to ）
25. literal 朴实的，字面的
26. intelligible 可以理解的。
27. conceit 幻想，奇想
1. Yet the difference in tome and language must strike us, so soon as it is philosophy that speaks: that change should remind us that even if the function of religion and that of reason coincide, this function is performed in the two cases by very different organs.
2. Reason, on the other hand, is a mere principle or potential order, on which indeed we may come to reflect but which exists in us ideally only, without variation or stress of any kind.
3. We conform or do not conform to it; it does not urge or chide us, not call for any emotions on our part other than those naturally aroused by the various objects which it unfolds in their true nature and proportion.
4. Religion, in its intent, is a more conscious and direct pursuit of the Life of Reason than is society, science, or art, for these approach and fill out the ideal life tentatively and piecemeal, hardly regarding the foal or caring for the ultimate justification of the instinctive aims.
5. one and all 各个都，全部
6. Those within the pale of each religion may prevail upon themselves, to express satisfaction with its results, thanks to a fond partiality in reading the past and generous draughts of hope for the future; but any one regarding the various religions at once and comparing their achievements with what reason requires, must feel how terrible is the disappointment which they have one and all prepared for mankind.
7. To confuse intelligence and dislocate sentiment by gratuitous fictions is a short-sighted way of pursuing happiness.
8. Thus religion too often debauches the morality it comes to sanction and impedes the science it ought to fulfill.
9. The condition and the aims of life are both represented in religion poetically, but this poetry tends to arrogate to itself literal truth and moral authority, neither of which it possesses.
1. C. 一种有目的而又不带偏见对最佳事物的探索。答案在最后一段，这种愚蠢的秘密是什么？为什么宗教在目的上那么接近真理，在其结构和结果上，却没有理性的一切？答案很简单：宗教是通过想象来追逐理性，当它解释事件或阐明原因时，以虚构的想象来取代科学，当它训诫，暗示理想或者重塑抱负时，以想象代替智慧——智慧的意思是指有意识而又公正的追求一切好东西。
A. 通过想象力追求理性。 B. 不带感情的探询真理。 C. 追求幸福的短视的方法。
2. A. 宗教通过想象力寻求真理，而理性的探索却运用感情。见难句译注3，理性（智）是非感情的。
B. 在解决人类问题上的宗教是一种无效的工具。 C. 科学寻求逐步解决对人类的问题。 D. 哲学和理性的功能是一样的。
3. A. 宗教没有意识（不知道）其最终目的的。见难句译注4，说明宗教不管（几乎不关注）其目的，或不关心其本能的目标最终真确与否。
B. 宗教没有想象力。 C. 其成果是确切的，最终的。 D. 宗教很象科学和艺术。
4. D. 它激起人类情感。第一段中说“宗教的挣扎与不断变化的力量似乎促使人追求某种永恒的东西，它似乎追求灵魂的最终和谐以及灵魂与灵魂所依赖的一起事物之间的永恒的和谐。”
A. 宗教依赖于直觉而不是推理。第一段最后一句：宗教也有本能和盲目的一面，在各种各样的偶然实践和直觉中沸腾。可不久它又向事物内心摸索前进，然而不论从哪个方向来，都转想最终方向（最终多转想这个方向——直觉），文章的最后一句：宗教的目的和理想的目的一样，而其实现目的方法是通过直觉和无限止的诗一般的幻想来进行的。 B. 它不关心其本能的目标最终是否真确。 C. 它使人类很失望。
5. D. 无效。第二段开始就点出：我们得承认宗教追求理性生活一直是很失败（流产了）。
A. 有想象力的。 B. 为未来提供希望的。 C. 是一个高度的智力活动。
Cryptic coloring is by far the commonest use of color in the struggle for existence. It is employed for the purpose of attack (aggressive resemblance or anticryptic coloring ) as well as of defense (protective resemblance or procryptic coloring ). The fact that the same method concealment, may be used both for attack and defense has been well explained by T.Belt who suggests as an illustration the rapidity of movement which is also made use of by both pursuer and pursued, which is similarly raised to a maximum in both by the gradual dying out of the slowest through a series of generations. Cryptic coloring is commonly associated with other aids in the struggle for life. Thus well-concealed mammals and birds, when discovered, will generally endeavor to escape by speed and will often attempt to defend themselves actively. On the other hand, small animals which have no means of active defense, such as large, numbers of insects, frequently depend upon concealment alone. Protective resemblance is far commoner among animals than aggressive resemblance, in correspondence with the fact that predaceous forms are as a rule much larger and much less numerous than their prey. In the case of insectivorous Vertebrata and their prey such differences exist in an exaggerated form. Cryptic coloring, whether used for defense of attack, may be either general or special. In general resemblance the animal, in consequence of its coloring, produces the same effect as its environment, but the conditions do not require any special adaptation of shape and outline. General resemblance is especially common among the animal inhabiting some uniformly colored expanse of the earth’s surface, such as an ocean or a desert. In the former, animals of all shapes are frequently protected by their transparent blue color, on the latter, equally diverse forms are defended by their sandy appearance. The effect of a uniform appearance may be produced by a combination of tints in startling contrast. Thus the black and white stripes of the zebra blend together at a little distance, and “their proportion is such as exactly to match the pale tint which arid ground possesses when seen by moonlight.” Special resemblance is far commoner than general and is the form which is usually met with on the diversified surface of the earth, on the shores, and in shallow water, as well as on the floating masses of algae on the surface of the ocean, such as the Sargasso Sea. In these environments the cryptic coloring of animals is usually aided by special modifications of shape, and by the instinct which leads them to assume particular attitudes. Complete stillness and the assumption of a certain attitude play an essential part in general resemblance on land; but in special resemblance the attitude is often highly specialized, and perhaps more important than any other element in the complex method by which concealment is effected. In special resemblance the combination of coloring, shape, and attitude is such as to produce a more or less exact resemblance to some one of the objects in the environment, such as a leaf of twig, a patch of lichen, a flake of bark. In all cases the resemblance is to some object which is of no interest to the enemy or prey respectively. The animal is not hidden from view by becoming indistinguishable from its background as in the case of general resemblance, but it is mistaken for some well-know object.
In seeking the interpretation of these most interesting and elaborate adaptations, attempts have been made along two lines. The first seeks to explain the effect as a result of the direct influence of the environment upon the individual (G.L.L.Buffon), or by the inherited effects of efforts and the use and disuse of parts (J.B.P.Lamarck). The second believes that natural selection produced the result and afterwards maintained it by the survival of the best concealed in each generation. The former suggestion breaks down when the complex nature of numerous special resemblances is appreciated. Thus the arrangement of colors of many kinds into an appropriate pattern requires the cooperation of a suitable shape and the rigidly exact adoption of a certain elaborate attitude. The latter is instinctive and thus depends on the central nervous system. The cryptic effect is due to the exact cooperation of all these factors; and in the present state of science, the only possible hole of an interpretation lies in the theory of natural selection, which can accumulate any and every variation which tends toward survival. A few of the chief types of methods by which concealment is effected may be briefly described. The colors of large numbers of vertebrate animals are darkest on the back and become gradually lighter on the sides, passing into white on the belly. Abbot H. Thayer has suggested that this gradation obliterates the appearance of solidity, which is due to shadow. The color harmony, which is also essential to concealment, is produced because the back is of the same tint as the environment (e. g. earth), bathed in the cold blue-white of the sky, while the belly, being cold blue-white and bathed in shadow and yellow earth reflections produces the same effects. This method of neutralizing shadow for the purpose of concealment by increased lightness of tint was first suggested by E.B.Poulton in the case of a larva and a pupa, but he did not appreciate the great importance of the principle. In an analogous method an animal in front of a background of dark shadow may have part of its body obliterated by the existence of a dark tint, the remainder resembling, e.g., a part of a leaf. This method of rendering invisible any part which would interfere with the resemblance is well know in mimicry.
1. The black and white stripes of the zebra are most useful form
[A]. hunters. [B]. nocturnal predators
[C]. lions and tigers. [C]. insectivorous Vertrbrata
2. Aggressive resemblance occurs when
[A]. a predaceous attitude is assumed.
[B]. special resemblance is utilized.
[C]. an animal relies on speed.
[D]. an animal blends in with its background.
3. Special resemblance differs from general resemblance in that the animal relies on
[A]. its ability to frighten its adversary. [B]. speed.
[C]. its ability to assume an attitude. [D]. mistaken identify
4. The title below that best expresses the ides of this passage is
[A]. Cryptic coloration for Protection. [B]. How Animals Survive.
[C]. The uses of Mimicry in Nature. [D]. Resemblances of Animals.
5. Of the following which is the least common?
[A]. protective resemblance. [B]. General resemblance.
[C]. Aggressive resemblance. [D]. Special resemblance.
1. cryptic 隐藏的，保护的
cryptic coloring 保护色，隐藏色
2. predaceous 食肉的，捕食其他动物的。
3. vertebrate 脊椎动物门
4. tint 色泽，色彩
5. zebra 斑马
6. Sargasso 果本马尾藻
7. twig 嫩枝
8. lichen 地衣
9. flake 一片
10. gradation 等级，层次，分等
11. obliterate 涂抹，擦去，使消失
12. larva 幼虫，幼体
13. pupa 蛹
14. mimicry 模仿，拟态
15. nocturnal 夜间发生的，夜出的
16. insectivorous 食虫的
17. procryptic 有保护色的，保护性的
1. …the rapidity of movement which is also made use of by both pursuer and pursued, which is similarly raised to a maximum in both by the gradual dying out of the slowest through a series of generations.
2. Protective resemblance is far commoner among animals than aggressive resemblance, in correspondence with the fact that predaceous forms are as a rule much larger and much less numerous than their prey.
3. The effect of a uniform appearance may be produced by a combination of tints in startling contrast.
4. …their proportion is such as exactly to match the pale tint which arid ground possesses when seen by moonlight.
5. In these environments the cryptic coloring of animals is usually aided by special modifications of shape, and by the instinct which leads them to assume particular attitudes.
6. Complete stillness and the assumption of a certain attitude play an essential part in general resemblance on land; but in special resemblance the attitude is often highly specialized…
7. Thus the arrangement of colors of many kinds into an appropriate pattern requires the cooperation of a suitable shape and the rigidly exact adoption of a certain elaborate attitude.
8. The cryptic effect is due to the exact cooperation of all these factors; and in the present state of science, the only possible hole of an interpretation lies in the theory of natural selection, which can accumulate any and every variation which tends toward survival.
1. B. 夜间活动的食肉动物。见难句译注4，斑马的黑白相间颜色的比例正好和月光下所见的贫瘠土地的苍白的色泽相吻合。当然能保护斑马夜间免遭这些食肉动物的袭击。
A. 捕获者。 C. 狮子和老虎。 D. 食虫的脊椎动物
2. A. 在装成捕食其他动物的姿势时。
B. 应该专门模仿。 C. 动物依赖速度。 D. 动物和背景混在一起。
3. D. 搞错/认错了动物（身份）（mistaken identify 认错了人之义）。见第一段最后一句话，它不像一般模仿那样，通过动物和背景难以辨别从而从视觉中隐藏起来，它是被误认为某种著名动物。
A. 用以吓走它的对手（敌人）的能力。 B. 速度。 C. 采用某种姿势的能力。
4. C. 自然界模拟的运动。文章一开始就点命保护色迄今为止生存斗争中最常用的一种颜色，常用于进攻和防卫。保护色常和其他措施相配合，首先提到速度，见难句译注1。然后讲到保护色分类，一般（普通）和特殊（专门）模拟/模仿。第二段解释或说明模拟适应性。第一种解释为环境使然/影响。第二种认为是自然界选择之结果。
A. 为了保卫的保护色。 B. 动物是如何存活下来。 D. 动物之模仿性。
5. C. 进攻性（侵犯性）模仿。见难句译注2。
A. 保护色模仿。 B. 一般性模仿。 D. 专项模仿。
Pageants are usually conceived on a fairly large scale, often under the auspices of some local or civic authority or at any rate in connection with local groups of some kind. This sometimes means that there is an allocation of funds available for the purpose of mounting the production, though unfortunately this will usually be found to be on the meager side and much ingenuity will have to be used to stretch it so that all performers can be adequately clothed.
Most pageants have a historical flavour as they usually come about through the celebration of the anniversary of some event of historic importance, or the life or death of some local worthy. Research among archives and books in the public library will probably prove very useful and produce some workable ideas which will give the production an especially local flavour. From the first economy will have to be practiced because there are usually a great number of people to dress. Leading characters can be considered individually in the same way as when designing for a play; but the main body of the performers will need to be planned in groups and the massed effect must be always borne in mind.
Many pageants take place in daylight in the open air. This is an entirely different problem from designing costumes which are going to be looked at under artificial lighting; for one thing, scenes viewed in the daylight are subject to many more distractions. No longer is everything around cut out by the surrounding darkness, but instead it is very easy to be aware of disturbing movement in the audience of behind the performers. Very theatrically conceived clothes do not always look their best when seen in a daylight setting of trees, verdant lawns and old ivy-covered walls; the same goes for costumes being worn in front of the mellow colors of stately homes. The location needs to be studied and then a decision can be made as to what kinds of colors and textures will harmonize best with the surroundings and conditions and then to carry this out as far as possible on the funds available.
If money is available to dress the performers without recourse to their own help in the provision of items, it is best to arrange for all the cutting and pinning together of the costumes to be done by one or two experienced people than to be given out to the groups and individuals for completion. When there is little or no money at all, the garments need to be reduced to the basic necessities. Cloaks and shawls become invaluable, sheets and large bath towels and bath sheets are admirable for draping. Unwanted curtains and bed spreads can be cut to make tunics, robes and skirts. These are particularly valuable if they are of heavy fabrics such as velvet or chenille.
Colors should be massed together so that there are contrasting groups of dark and light, this will be found to help the visual result substantially. Crowds of people gathered together in a jumble of colors will be ground to look quite purposeless and will lack dramatic impact.
The use of numbers of identical head-dresses, however simply made, are always effective when working with groups. If these are made of cardboard and painted boldly the cost can be almost negligible. Helmets, hats and plumes will all make quite a show even if the costumes are only blandest or sheets cleverly draped. The same can be said of the use of banners, shields and poles with stiff pennants and garlands—anything which will help to have a unifying effect. Any kind of eye-catching device will always go with a flourish and add excitement to the scenes.
1. The main idea of this passage is
[A]. Pageants. [B]. Costumes on the stage.[C]. Costumes for pageants. [D]. How to arrange a pageant.
2. It can be inferred that the most important factor in costume design is
[A]. money. [B]. color. [C]. harmony [D]. texture
3. Why will much ingenuity have to be required in costume design?
[A]. Because pageants take place in daylight in the open air.
[B]. Because different characters require different costumes.
[C]. Because the colors and textures must be in harmony with the setting.
[D]. Because an allocation of the funds available is usually rather small.
4. Why do most pageants have a historical flavour?
[A]. Because most pageants take place for celebration.[B]. Many pageants take place for amusement.
[C]. A lot of pageants take place for religion. [D]. Because pageants usually take place for competition.
1. conceive 设想，想象
to be conceived 设想好的，构思好的
2. under the auspices of 在……的主办下
3. meager 贫乏的，不足的
4. mount 登上，制作，上演
5. flavour 风味，风格，情趣
6. archive(s) 档案（馆）
7. distraction 使人分心的事
8. ivy 常春藤
9. mellow 柔和的
10. recourse (to) 依赖，求助于
11. drape 覆盖，披上
12. invaluable 无价的，非常贵重的
13. tunic （古时）长达膝盖的外衣，穿在盔甲上的战袍
14. chenille 绳绒绒（织品）
15. jumble 混乱，搞乱
16. pennant 细长三角旗
17. garland 花环，花冠
1. This sometimes means that there is an allocation of funds available for the purpose of mounting the production, though unfortunately this will usually be found to be on the meager side and much ingenuity will have to be used to stretch it so that all performers can be adequately clothed.
2. Most pageants have a historical flavour as they usually come about through the celebration of the anniversary of some event of historic importance, or the life or death of some local worthy.
3. This is an entirely different problem from designing costumes which are going to be looked at under artificial lighting; for one thing, scenes viewed in the daylight are subject to many more distractions. No longer is everything around cut out by the surrounding darkness, but instead it is very easy to be aware of disturbing movement in the audience of behind the performers.
[结构简析] 复合结构：主句this is后有定语从句，which修饰costumes。从句中又套从句。
4. Very theatrically conceived clothes do not always look their best when seen in a daylight setting of trees, verdant lawns and old ivy-covered walls; the same goes for costumes being worn in front of the mellow colors of stately homes.
[结构简析] 并列句，中用分号隔开。第一句中有when seen 连词+过去分词，实质起从句作用。第二句是主从句。
5. If money is available to dress the performers without recourse to their own help in the provision of items, it is best to arrange for all the cutting and pinning together of the costumes to be done by one or two experienced people than to be given out to the groups and individuals for completion.
[结构简析] 条件句，主句为逻辑主句，注意中间两个被动不定式。To be done by, than to be given out, 这里的than起连词作用。
1. C. 露天演出的服装。第一段末尾已经点明，“一般认为露天演出规模宏大，常常是由某个地方或当局（民政局主办赞助），或总是和某个地方集团有关。这意味着有用于演出目的资金配额，遗憾的是配额一般很少，必须动用非常的才能，细细的使用资金，所有演员才能窗上恰当的服装。”其他各段各有重点，但都是服务于剧装这一中心。
A. 露天演出。 B. 舞台剧装（包括剧场）。 D. 如何安排露天演出；涉及面或大或小，不适合。
2. C. 和谐。服装设计中最重要的因素是和谐。这一点在几段中都提到，第二段最后一句“演员的主题必须以群体设计，头脑中必须经常记住群体效果。”第三段最后一句“必须研究演出的地理位置，决出什么样的颜色和织物，能和环境，条件，达到最完美和谐。”第五段专讲颜色搭配，“应当从总体考虑颜色，这样才有亮和暗的群体对比，帮助产生实感的视觉效果，一群穿着杂七杂八颜色服装的演员聚集在一起看起来乱哄哄。缺乏戏剧效果。”这也是和谐之要求。
A. 钱。钱要考虑。出前两段外，第三段最后一句，讲完和谐后，也提到“尽可能以能到手的资金加以实现这决定。”第四段中“在钱很少或是没有钱的情况下，服装得降到基本需要”，下面就讲利用被单，浴巾，窗帘做服装，所以钱在服装设计中很重要，但不能列为最重要因素，有钱没有钱都得以服装协调为主。 B. 颜色。
3. D. 因为能得到资金的配额都很少。第一段最后一句话，见第一题译注。
A. 因为在光天化日下演出。 B. 因为不同演员要求不同服装。 C. 颜色和织物必须和布景谐调。这些只是考虑的因素。见上面译文。
4. A. 因为大多数露天演出都是为纪念庆祝。第二段第一句“露天演出一般都是某个具有历史意义事件，或者当地某个值得纪念的人物的诞辰和逝世周年，所以大多数露天演出都具有历史纪念色彩。”
B. 许多露天演出是为了娱乐。 C. 许多露天演出是为了宗教。 D. 因为露天演出一般是参与竞赛。三项都不对。
The statistics I’ve cited and the living examples are all too familiar to you. But what may not be so familiar will be the increasing number of women who are looking actively for advancement of for a new job in your offices. This woman may be equipped with professional skills and perhaps valuable experience, She will not be content to be Executive Assistant to Mr. Seldom Seen of the Assistant Vice President’s Girl Friday, who is the only one who comes in on Saturday.
She is the symbol of what I call the Second Wave of Feminism. She is the modern woman who is determined to be.
Her forerunner was the radical feminist who interpreted her trapped position as a female as oppression by the master class of men. Men, she believed, had created a domestic, servile role for women in order that men could have the career and the opportunity to participate in making the great decisions of society. Thus the radical feminist held that women through history had been oppressed and dehumanized, mainly because man chose to exploit his wife and the mother of his children. Sometimes it was deliberate exploitation and sometimes it was the innocence of never looking beneath the pretensions of life.
The radical feminists found strength in banding together. Coming to recognize each other for the first time, they could explore their own identities, realize their own power, and view the male and his system as the common enemy. The first phases of feminism in the last five years often took on this militant, class-warfare tone. Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, Germaine Greer, and many others hammered home their ideas with a persistence that aroused and intrigued many of the brightest and most able women in the country. Consciousness-raising groups allowed women to explore both their identities and their dreams—and the two were often found in direct conflict.
What is the stereotyped role of American women? Marriage. A son. Two daughters. Breakfast. Ironing. Lunch. Bowling, maybe a garden club of for the very daring, non-credit courses in ceramics. Perhaps an occasional cocktail party. Dinner. Football or baseball on TV. Each day the same. Never any growth in expectations—unless it is growth because the husband has succeeded. The inevitable question: “Is that all there is to life?”
The rapid growth of many feminist organizations attests to the fact that these radical feminists had touched some vital nerves. The magazine “Ms.” was born in the year of the death of the magazine “Life.” But too often the consciousness-raising sessions became ends in themselves. Too often sexism reversed itself and man-hating was encouraged. Many had been with the male chauvinist.
It is not difficult, therefore, to detect a trend toward moderation. Consciousness-raising increasingly is regarded as a means to independence and fulfillment, rather than a ceremony of fulfillment itself. Genuine independence can be realized through competence, through finding a career, through the use of education. Remember that for many decades the education of women was not supposed to be useful.
1. What was the main idea of this passage?
[A]. The Second Wave of Feminist. [B]. Women’s Independent Spirits.
[C]. The Unity of Women. [D]. The Action of Union.
2. What was the author’s attitude toward the radical?
[A]. He supported it wholeheartedly. [B]. He opposed it strongly.
[C]. He disapproved to some extent. [D]. He ignored it completely.
3. What does the word “militant” mean?
[A]. Aggressive. [B]. Ambitions. [C]. Progressive. [D]. Independent.
4, What was the radical feminist’s view point about the male?
[A]. Women were exploited by the male.
[B]. Women were independent of the male.
[C]. Women’s lives were deprived by the male.
[D]. The male were their common enemy.
1. trapped 被诱入圈套的，陷阱
2. servile 屈从的，奴隶的，奴性的
3. dehumanized 使失去人/个性的
4. pretension 要求，权利，借口
5. look beneath 看到下面
6. band together 紧密团结在一起
7. explore 探索，考察
8. phase 阶段，方面，形式
9. class-warfare 阶级斗争
10. hammer home 硬性灌输
hammer home an idea into sb. 硬向某人灌输某种观念
11. intrigue 使着迷，密谋，用诡计取得
12. stereotype 固定不变的，陈规旧习的
13. attest 证明，证实，表明
14. chauvinist 沙文主义者，男子至上主义这
15. moderation （政治，宗教上）稳健中庸，缓和
16. fulfillment 臻于完善，发挥潜在能力
17. sexism 性别歧视（常指其实妇女）
18. be independent of 独立于……之外，不受……控制/支配
1. She will not be content to be Executive Assistant to Mr. Seldom Seen of the Assistant Vice President’s Girl Friday, who is the only one who comes in on Saturday.
这是作者杜撰的名字，含有讽刺内涵。Mr. Seldom Seen 很少见到的先生。说明公司很难见到他。那么做他的助手就是她替他干一切活。星期五姑娘。星期五是《鲁滨逊漂流记》中的一个人物，是鲁滨逊的仆人。这位星期六休假日来上班的姑娘，当然得干主人的一切活。
2. Men, she believed, had created a domestic, servile role for women in order that men could have the career and the opportunity to participate in making the great decisions of society.
[结构简析] she believed 形式上插入语，实际 Men 句是它的宾语从句。In order that 义：为的是。目的状语。
3. Thus the radical feminist held that women through history had been oppressed and dehumanized, mainly because man chose to exploit his wife and the mother of his children. Sometimes it was deliberate exploitation and sometimes it was the innocence of never looking beneath the pretensions of life.
4. Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, Germaine Greer, and many others hammered home their ideas with a persistence that aroused and intrigued many of the brightest and most able women in the country.
[参考译文] Betty Friedan， Gloria Steinem，Germaine Greer，以及其他许多激进女权主义者坚持不懈的强行灌输（推行）他们的思想，幻想并吸引了国内无数最聪容，最能干的妇女。
1. A. 第二次女权运动的浪潮。在第一段，一般性描述之后（见难句译注1），作者画龙点睛的指明“她就是我所指的第二次女权运动浪潮的象征。她是决心要成为的现代妇女的代表。”以后的文章就是围绕女权运动而写的。见文章大意。
B. 妇女的独立精神。这只是女权运动中部分内容。 C. 妇女团结。第三段一开始就提到“激进女权主义者发现了紧密团结在一起的力量。”也是女权运动的部分内容。
2. C. 有点不赞成。这在最后两段表现的最为明显：“许多女权运动组织迅速发展证明这些激进争取女权的人触到了某些活跃的神经。（非常活跃）。 Ms 杂志就在《生活》停刊那年诞生。可是唤起觉醒的会议常常成为这些活动的目的。性别歧视（歧视妇女）也常常颠倒过来并且提倡憎恨男人。许多人曾是男权至上主义者。”“因此，察觉向平和中的趋向发展并不难。提高觉悟的做法越来越被认为是独立与成就的方式，而不是庆贺成就本身的仪式。真正的独立是能够通过能力，通过寻找一份事业，通过应用教育加以实现。要记住，几十年来，妇女教育被认为是无用的。”如果是倒数第二段是作者对激进分子有点批评，不满的态度的表现，那么最后一段就是作者的观点：独立是靠塌实工作，提高妇女自身的能力来实现的。
A. 他全心全意的拥护。 B. 他强烈反对。不完全如此。 D. 他完全忽视不顾。
3. A. 好斗的。（斗争性强的）。第三段第三句：“在最近5年中女权运动首要方面常常具有这种好斗的阶级斗争调子。”
B. 野心的。 C. 进步的。 D. 独立的。
4. D. 男人是她们共同的敌人。第三段：“激进女权运动分子在紧密团结中找到了力量。第一次她们认识了自己，她们可以探索自我，意识到她们的力量，把男人及其制度视为她们共同的敌人。”
A. 妇女为男人们所剥削。这在第三段中讲到，见难句译注3。这是妇女观点中具体内容之一。也是为什么说男人及制度是她们共同敌人的原因之一。 B. 妇女不受男人支配。 C. 男人剥夺了女人生活。
New and bizarre crimes have come into being with the advent of computer technology. Organized crime to has been directly involved; the new technology offers it unlimited opportunities, such as data crimes, theft of services, property-related crimes, industrial sabotage, politically related sabotage, vandalism, crimes against the individual and financially related crimes…
Theft of data, or data crime, has attracted the interest of organized criminal syndicates. This is usually the theft or copying of valuable computer grogram. An international market already exists for computerized data, and specialized fences are said to be playing a key role in this rapidly expanding criminal market. Buyers for stolen programs may range from a firm’s competitors to foreign nations.
A competitor sabotages a company’s computer system to destroy or cripple the firm’s operational ability, thus neutralizing its competitive capability either in the private or the government sector. This computer sabotage may also be tied to an attempt by affluent investors to acquire the victim firm. With the growing reliance by firms on computers for their recordkeeping and daily operations, sabotage of their computers can result in internal havoc, after which the group interested in acquiring the firm can easily buy it at a substantially lower price. Criminal groups could also resort to sabotage if the company is a competitor of a business owned or controlled by organized crime.
Politically motivated sabotage is on the increase; political extremist groups have sprouted on every continent. Sophisticated computer technology arms these groups with awesome powers and opens technologically advanced nations to their attack. Several attempts have already been made to destroy computer facility at an air force base. A university computer facility involved in national defence work suffered more than $2 million in damages as a result of a bombing.
Computer vulnerability has been amply documented. One congressional study concluded that neither government nor private computer systems are adequately protected against sabotage. Organized criminal syndicates have shown their willingness to work with politically motivated groups. Investigators have uncovered evidence of cooperation between criminal groups and foreign governments in narcotics. Criminal groups have taken attempts in assassinating political leaders…. Computers are used in hospital life-support system, in laboratories, and in major surgery. Criminals could easily turn these computers into tools of devastation. By sabotaging the computer of a life-support system, criminals could kill an individual as easily as they had used a gun. By manipulating a computer, they could guide awesome tools of terror against large urban centers. Cities and nations could become hostages. Homicide could take a now form. The computer may become the hit man of the twentieth century.
The computer opens vast areas of crime to organized criminal groups, both national and international. It calls on them to pool their resources and increase their cooperative efforts, because many of these crimes are too complex for one group to handle, especially those requiting a vast network of fences. Although criminals have adapted to computer technology, law enforcement has not. Many still think in terms of traditional criminology.
1. How many kinds of crimes are mentioned in the passage?
[A]. 7. [B]. 8. [C]. 9. [D]. 10
2. What is the purpose of a competitor to sabotage a company’s computer?
[A]. His purpose is to destroy or weaken the firm’s operational ability.
[B]. His purpose is to weaken firm’s competitive capability and get it.
[C]. His purpose is to buy the rival’s company at a relatively low price.
[D]. His purpose is to steal important data.
3. Which of the following can be labeled as a politically motivated sabotage of a computer system?
[A]. Sabotage of a university computer.
[B]. Sabotage of a hospital computer.
[C]. Sabotage of computer at a secret training base.
[D]. Sabotage of a factory computer.
4. What does the author mean by “Homicide could take a new form”?
[A]. There is no need to use a gun in killing a person.
[B]. Criminals can kill whoever they want by a computer.
[C]. The computer can replace any weapons.
[D]. The function of a computer is just like a gun.
It was a village in India. The people were poor. However, they were not unhappy. After all, their forefathers had lived in the same way for centuries.
Then one day. Some visitors from the city arrived. The told the villagers there were some people elsewhere who liked to eat frog’s legs. However, they did not have enough frogs of their own, and so they wanted to buy frogs from other place.
This seemed like money for nothing. There were millions of frogs in the fields around, and they were no use to the villagers. All they had to do was catch them. Agreement was reached, and the children were sent into the fields to catch frogs. Every week a truck arrived to collect the catch and hand over the money. For the first time, the people were able to dream of a batter future. But the dream didn’t last long.
The change was hardly noticed at first, but it seemed as if the crops were not doing so well. More worrying was that the children fell ill more often, and, there seemed to be more insects around lately.
The villagers decided that they couldn’t just wait to see the crops failing and the children getting weak. They would have to use the money earned to buy pesticides(杀虫剂) and medicines. Soon there was no money left.
Then the people realized what was happening. It was the frog. They hadn’t been useless. They had been doing an important job---eating insects. Now with so many frogs killed, the insects were increasing more rapidly. They were damaging the crops and spreading diseases.